The observations showed a wide variety of structure and a lack of structure in the outer layers near the Sun’s equator. The results were confirmed by an analysis of data taken by NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope that had been acquired during the same year as the recent paper, and are being released at a conference Thursday.

The latest results for the far side of the Sun were also announced at the conference, but since the images are not as good as the ones from Hubble, it is easier to judge the findings. Although there are still a few surprises in the data, one can say it has shown a long-term decline in the solar activity level that is consistent with the Sun’s long-term cycle and the long-term slowdown of the Sun’s spin rate. This would seem to indicate a slowdown, but that is not confirmed yet. It also suggests a short-term dip is the consequence of a cooling process or a magnetic reconnection event, a long-term decline.

A different model - “Neutron Stars”

Although the results from the recent study did not exactly repeat the results of previous studies, they did provide some preliminary confirmation. That model predicts that there would be similar changes, though the details and time span required for a complete reversal are different from Hubble, and hence, a new discovery might be on the horizon. Most of that process takes place at the star’s core, and the innermost core of a neutron star is known to be much cooler and denser than the atmosphere. If a massive star goes supernova, its core and atmosphere may be destroyed completely and the core is a black hole with a lot of energy that comes out at the surface. The process seems to be reversible, but its speed is extremely slow. For that reason, it is not a particularly popular model to try to explain the effects of high-energy bursts on our Sun or the solar environment. The new results provide a different model that could explain the change. Here’s the key thing about this scenario: The supernova (or some other event that creates an explosion at the surface of the black hole) is so intense that the light from it interacts with the material in the core - if the surface is heated to the temperature required by the supernova, then the material will vaporize. If that happens, the energy stored within the core will be released. That process could lead to a much larger and more violent result than what we see every day when we’re on the Sun. For years, astronomers have suspected that there are neutron stars at the core of the Sun. In 2006, a team led by Thomas P. Neukirch, the University of California, Santa Cruz, led by physicist Roger J. Koppl, investigated five stars. But they found that the core was far, far hotter than astronomers had previously thought. They also noticed that the black hole at the core was significantly smaller than could be attributed to just the black hole alone. It was the only way to explain the low density of the internal plasma, the size of the black hole, and the fact that Koppl and colleagues saw no evidence of a core in the outer layers of the star. Now, Koppl himself and other scientists have added to the growing puzzle by finding a large central neutron star in the outer regions of the Sun that is 100 million years older than the main star.

While the results are exciting, they’re hardly surprising. Neutron stars are thought to be the building blocks of stars, and they are often at the center of clusters and also within superclusters of other stars. Koppl and colleagues discovered these stars using the Solar System SSPACE (Solar System Pulsar Spectroscopic (SSP) and Magnetic (SMP)) network. The SSPACE network is the most accurate data set around the Sun that will provide direct measurements of the temperature (and other properties) of the outermost layers of the Sun. Koppl is a senior research associate at Caltech and is a contributor to SSPACE. The SSPACE team has also been using the NASA Hubble Space Telescope to get more detailed images of this supernova black hole to get a first-hand look at how it is changing in shape.

The team has been surprised and gratified that Koppl’s findings supported their idea that there are neutron stars in the inner solar volume, and that these are much more massive than the main stars. The team also found a ring-shaped structure across the sky where this black hole is situated. In fact, the SMP network has identified eight (! !) such rings around other stars. The SMP images, once again, allowed the scientists to find the outermost layer of the Sun, and they found that it is extremely hot and very dense. They also

One of my personal passions is gardening and I’ve always fantasized about getting a hand-me-down field of “Red” (or “Black”) Sage (Myrtle) for my future garden. I’ve had great success growing some great varieties of Sage on a small patch of land that’s just over an acre and have actually grown small trees. Recently I’ve been dreaming about a small greenhouse and the idea of building it in the back yard and having a small shed set up in the back of the house. My sister told me about some amazing plants that grow in containers and that would make a great display that I was going to add to my kitchen. After discussing this with the two people I brought in it is clear the idea has merit and I’d like to move forward. Since I wasn’t sure how they were going to get them into the greenhouse, I didn’t know if I wanted to start with seeds or a small greenhouse and I also wasn’t sure how long it would take to get enough of the plants. After spending a few days thinking some more, it looks like I have a few options

The first option would be to order seeds from Natures Farm or some other source but they are not open to ordering seeds for home garden. It’s not always practical to purchase seeds from other sources at the end of October when there are many other events and that makes it hard to decide on seed ordering dates on our end. In fact, some seeds can be unavailable for several months after you plant them, and that’s just one of several factors that need consideration when doing seed searching. It’s possible that a seed carrier will be available and be able to handle the seeds that come into their care for several weeks (or, occasionally, months) and provide an estimate of how long it will take to get the seeds into the seeds-in-a-box.

The best option for me would be to get seed by container, from one of the vendors, since they are available the most before new year season starts and their prices are much more affordable, as well as to have more options out there. This might sound a bit crazy, but I’ve also never done this because I just didn’t want my family or neighborhood to hear about this project. My desire is to share, share, share plants with my children and other family members (not to mention to others who appreciate my hobby). The seed carrier can do all of this too, if they have them. I also was very fortunate with the idea of receiving the seed from the seed carrier in my own backyard.

The second most reasonable option is to get the seeds themselves and to send them out to one of the seed suppliers that stock seed containers. This might seem expensive and maybe a bit impractical since many of the seeds come from other garden centers and this would mean mailing large amounts of seeds to every address in the world and that would seem to be a hassle, but this route avoids the concerns I have with the second option. The most important consideration is the amount of plants you want in the greenhouse. The larger the seed container the larger the amount of plants you can put together in a greenhouse and that will ensure that as much green as possible is done together, and that also can be done while getting the seeds into the container and getting it to the seed carrier for distribution. I chose to send the seeds myself because I didn’t have this option with other sources. It really wasn’t that expensive either.

One of the best-known and long-lived stars, the red giant star SN 1977 J has a very long lifespan as it’s still active. It’s actually about 11 billion years old (if it had been born in the early Universe). The red giant and the star’s three outer planets are all considered “hot J” planets because it’s the very closest of the three that’s still actively cooling. As such, it has the lowest surface temperature of any known star of its type. Unlike its cousins, it’s highly magnetic, making its surface so hot that you can be burnt to a crisp in a matter of seconds.

In this image taken on January 27 2013, astronomers discovered that a young star was in fact a red giant, even though astronomers had been looking for them

In December 2013, a comet named 2015 TB emerged from a dusty asteroid. While it’s unlikely to make any impact with Earth, one of its components is a hot Jupiters core, and if this core becomes unstable it could lead to the formation of planets with a mass as large as Earth. I am also quite excited about the idea that a hot Jupiters core has been found in another asteroid, one that has not been previously studied.

and the final planet to leave our solar system, and the one for which there is no known planet companion in the habitable zone of

And in 1755, he somehow walked into a house, broke the windows, burned down, and crawled out the window only to find the body of the woman he’d been chasing, tied to a chair, and had killed herself.

“Hell, I bet you wouldn’t even look behind you.” -The Devil

When asked to describe the man, the Devil replied: “My name is Al Capone. I worked for the mob. At one point I stole the mob’s mobster. I was a pretty good hit man for them. I was smart as well. I knew what you think about mobsters and the things that they do. But this was the last thing you expected. This was the Devil. I was working for the mob for a long time. I was a well-educated guy. I knew better than to lie and cheat and steal. But I did it anyways. I knew that if I did it twice, everybody was going to find out about us. That’s what I tried to do. I played everybody, but this time I put on my old clothes. I wore a mask over his face, and I started out. But before long, some of the men in the mob started to get suspicious. So they finally caught me. Some of ‘em saw me there. One of the mobsters asked me, “Do you work for the devil?” And I said, “No, I work for my daddy.” And I said, “You’re just an innocent man. One of them couldn’t handle my face or my appearance on the outside of the window.” And he said, “How about this, little man, can you live under me for a while?” So that’s when I started to work for the mob. It was easy for me. I worked under the mob. At times, I got paid more than I made in my entire life. Like we used to do in Europe. I have a lot of friends that work for the mob, and they are doing pretty well. And they’re enjoying it. So I try to keep my head down and work hard to keep my children safe while I do this, too. The Devil said, “You can tell your children how good your momma was doing in the mob. Tell them how she saved all of them. Tell ‘em how she bought the groceries and kept the lights on.” So here is where we are now; working under the mob. I keep my head down and work hard. I really don’t care when people start accusing me of being a part of the mafia. I have other things to worry about, actually. Right now I do pretty good, and I am not worried. Every year I get a little more money. And I will have more children. The Devil said, “What is next?” And the Devil answered, “I don’t mind getting older; but we should be careful. Your children will grow up thinking that you were on the mob. When they see your face in the picture, they will think that you are in the mob. Be careful about what you say to them. Be careful about what you do. Be careful while you are away. Just like that I won’t be around much.” -The Devil

If you’d like to read more about the Devil, get your copy of The Devil Out of Purgatory , or watch a presentation on The Devil’s Demons by Mary Ainsworth.

New research published in the journal Biology Letters suggests that ancient monkeys could have traveled between coastalCambodia andSouth America at the time of the initial dispersal of humans from Africa.

The remains of three individuals from the Cephalopod , a genus of ungulates that includes monkeys, are among the oldest known in the world. The three fossilized primates, which lie approximately 1.9 by 2.2 by 0.5 inches, were recovered in a cave site and dated to between 4.5 and 7.3 million years ago – about the time that modern humans left Africa about 150,000 years ago.

Two of the specimens were discovered by archaeologists analyzing a rock layer that was found under the ancient cave, while a third was unearthed in an expedition in 1991. The remains of a single monkey were found by accident in a riverbed, although it had remained undisturbed in the region since its discovery. A third monkey, described on siteas being ‘large and brown, but not brown like modern monkey’, was found in 1992.

In the new study, an international team (which included researchers from the European Bioinformatics Institute in Grenoble, France as well asthe Canadian Museum for Nature’sCanadacom Research Institute in Winnipeg) compared the genetic profile of the fossilized teeth with available DNA (the DNA of living animals) and identified afourth ‘missing link’ – a monkey-like ancestor that lived in South America at the time ofthe initial dispersal of modern humans from Africa. Themissing link consisted of a species of non-avian primate known as theCephalopod . The’missing link’ monkey is closely related to theother Cephalopods and might have been the ancestors to the modern monkeys present in the region. The researchers concluded that the Cephalopods existed as a monadic, or ‘lone wolf,’ group of animals during the time of the current dispersal of modern humans. If the ancestors of modern monkeys had lived in South America during the initialdispersalof modern humans, they may have contributed to the spread ofa population of monkeys across the Atlantic after amigration from Africa, said the team, led by Prof. Christophe Leu andDr. Christian Gaudin .

“Our work confirms the hypothesis that the human ancestors from South America originated in Africa and crossed the Bering Strait from north to south. It suggests an origin of the modern populations of monkeys and the origin of the present species,” the researchers wrote. “This result supports the hypothesis that early people from North America may have traveled across the Bering Strait in large groups and subsequently dispersed across the entire continent.”

“Our results also reveal that human ancestors were able to successfully colonize several islands and open seas. These results call into question the very existence of islands withmultiple large and isolated population groups,” saysLeu. “The geographical continuity of the New World across this period is not supported by paleoecology.”

“The main conclusion of our study is that the dispersal of modern humans from Africa required two distinct routes: one that passed through the Bering Strait and the other that reached south of New Guinea,” adds the lead author of the study.

“The results of our study challenge the hypothesis of a one-way route. Rather, the route was a route in transition between a cline to and between two different habitats on land.”

“This new information represents important insights into the geography and evolution of the modern-day monkeys in the Southern Pacific. They demonstrate that genetic markers are more informative and important than population frequencies in assessing primate dispersal,” concludes Leu. [1]

!!!!!! of American life. The entire crew was rescued, the men and women who helped save the astronaut were awarded the prestigious Distinguished Civilian Achievement Award, and America’s most celebrated astronaut ended his long ordeal by receiving the Legion of Merit award, which is given every year to an astronaut for his outstanding service in space and on Earth. It was a story that captivated and inspired Americans who, while sometimes skeptical, were willing to offer their support for the courageous men and women who served in the space program and to whose extraordinary sacrifice the nation was blessed. The program is featured in a new documentary produced by ABC to mark the 10 year anniversary and airing later this year. The program is the first of three that will air in the wake of the space shuttle Columbia disaster which occurred just days after Mission STS-77 was launched and resulted in the catastrophic failure of the shuttles’ solid rocket boosters. We are releasing it now to mark one of the defining years. And now that we have returned to this remarkable episode of American history–a time when Americans could see those brave individuals and the extraordinary work they put into space–we think this segment needs more attention. Our thoughts and prayers are with Steve Rogers, Tom Stafford, and Michelle Pulaski.


The men and women in the space program put so much into space, and yet, the tragic circumstances that unfolded over the last couple days of December have touched the lives of two of America’s greatest astronauts. It was an incredible week in space for NASA, as two astronauts, Tom Stafford and Steve Rogers, took the stage for a surprise visit from President Barack Obama to meet with the crew of Discovery and announce plans for the latest space shuttle flight, STS-71. In the days in between, President Obama met again with astronauts at one of the space centers with the newest launch. The crew is still recovering from the most punishing part of their journey and, the president and company made a surprise visit to the astronauts on the back of the space shuttle Columbia, hoping to share their feelings from these first two days of spaceflight.

The White House press release announcing the president’s visit said, “President Obama today announced the establishment of a new White House Office of Astronaut Medicine to make spaceflight safety and health a top priority, and the President said that he will also invite the astronauts to the White House to meet with Vice President Joe Biden.” Before the crew had met with the president, however, it was released in a television report from Discovery, who was in the same news conference where the president made the announcement about a new office. Discovery was clearly hurt by the news release and the news crew cut away to the astronauts’ reaction.


Steve Rogers said in a letter to the NASA press gallery, “Today, the Columbia crew have been through more than any of us could possibly imagine. Their loss was an incredibly sad chapter in the history of Space Exploration with two of the greatest men of our generationand also some very firstsjoined by our newest crew and two new astronautson the ship for a year and a half.” He emphasized, “I want to make it perfectly clear that I had nothing against the idea of a permanent White House Office of Astronautism. But I know for certain that it could not happen without the help of folks in the White House, who I trust to make it work.” With the Columbia disaster already under way when the astronauts returned to earth, the announcement to create their Office of Astronaut Medicine was timed as a way for NASA to give its new leadership a chance to get the word out quickly. The new office has one goal: to ensure the safety and well being of the crew and the rest of the crew of an expedition before their return to earth. It is a new and different mission that has been approved only after extensive review by NASA and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. It will be headed up by Mike Levin, former NASA astronaut from the original Apollo missions and former chair of NASA’s Commission on ISS, as well as by Dr. Ellen Stofan, an astronaut selected by the White House and served during the Apollo 17 mission. In their statement announcing the new office, the members of the crew of Discovery said, “We continue our personal healing from the effects of loss at Columbia. We are grateful for his assistance, and know that he will do just some good, too.” It is the first time that a spacecraft has been in orbit and recovered in these conditions and, now, we learn what the crew was doing that day in orbitwhere their hearts went because of so much stress. Their thoughts and prayers now go with the families of the fallen, as well as the people who helped them during these last few days. ** * All images by NASA/HPL

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The government will have had to spend far more than it planned in order to rebuild. In its final analysis of the state’s tourism budget in 2014-15, the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) estimates the $10 billion spent to date in the first seven months of 2015 will have been wasted with no measurable benefit to the economy. For the second part of this year, the situation will be even more alarming. The bleaching that is taking place in the northern sections of the reef is due to a lack of wind and rain. But we know from a study in Florida conducted in 1988 that the increase in temperature is not the only cause–some factors, including the impact of man-made aerosols, play as well.

The image above shows the northern section of the Great Barrier Reef as part of a long term survey. The corals are brown, with white spots to the left and right. The dark spots on the right are some of the bleaching events which are occurring. Yellow regions indicate areas of healthy coral. Red regions indicate areas of bleaching due to human causes. As you can see, the overall conditions are very poor.

This image comes from the Queensland Government’s annual business update in April 2015. This is a very sobering picture for Australian tourism. The Queensland Government has announced that it is likely that by year end, some 965,000 people will visit Australian tourism destinations. That’s almost 10% of the population. But it’s already hard enough to find tourists in the state.

These are graphs which show the amount of water used in the first four months of 2016. What if it was that the current trend continued as planned for the second half of 2015? For a state like Queensland, who depends on tourism to keep his economy afloat, it is a lot to ask for a decline, but the latest data released this week shows that the Great Barrier Reef is struggling. It is likely that the coral bleaching event is going to continue, and that the bleaching has not had a significant economic impact so far, but at this point all we can do is wait and hope for the best..

It is not hard to see now what exactly’s going on here. The Australian government is on holiday - on holidays. They are taking the time to visit the Great Barrier Reef and the surrounding islands, but even in those rare occasions of the government being able to keep the Australian public informed–or let them on the island of holiday–they are also spending much less time keeping Australians informed about the reality on the ground. They have been for their entire time in office, so to see the country go into an extended holiday period of uncertainty and confusion is incredibly worrying. Australia has never seen this level of economic stress, but the government knows it has to spend some of the extra funds it has taken out of the budget to make up for the increased costs which might be needed if it does not manage to restore the reef to a state of pre-bleaching conditions. But it is an enormous task, and it could take a generation to get it right.

So far, the government has been able to justify this spending on tourism as needed for the Australian economy. In truth, while it might be for the betterment of the Australian people and their economy, it is not a viable plan for the real people who are relying on tourism as a means of survival. Just a day in these small islands gives one a strong feeling of security, but the reality is that the government is not actually doing many things to try and create jobs for the people of Queensland, and, while they have brought many jobs to the state, there are people around who are being devastated as a consequence of the government’s overspending on its tourism strategy.

The most disturbing thing about Australian tourism is a lack of accountability. Tourism is a small part of the government’s overall budget, and yet they have an obligation to inform the Australian public about how they intend to spend the money in 2016, or in the years ahead. While some of the spending can be justified as justifiable in a country like England, with its large population, a nation of immigrants, and a lack of a single place of your own where you can go to escape the stresses of a busy day? I think not in Australia.

We have an opportunity here to get this situation right, and to make tourism a part of the conversation where it belongs, and where it needs to be. How is it going to be done? What solutions are there?

I am going to go through some of the ideas that have been proposed, and then I will try and provide some context and an agenda with which to work.

Let’s start with the most important item:

What does it take for

The bubbles appeared to hold many small organisms in suspended existence, with one bubble found that contained a single worm living inside of it.. A separate colony of bacteria was observed in another bubble, apparently thriving. The researchers have concluded that these bubbles probably arose as a result of a process in which ice was heated.

The second bubble was seen in similar conditions with a single worm and was also found to contain the life form.

Researchers have concluded that the bubbles may have emerged as a result of the formation of a “glaciation” between the sea ice and the ground during the recent melting event. They found that the cold air is more dense than the warmer water and provides a “sealing” system between the ice and the land. As this ice melts, the seal begins to break and the liquid water quickly expands and rises to meet the ice. A new bubble is formed, and if the surface of the sea ice is above the surface of the ground, the new bubble will be close enough to the ice to allow it to form, thus allowing the organisms to become trapped in the ice and starve to death.

According to a University of Colorado graduate student, “This is completely new. We’re seeing a bunch of bubbles, this time in this region. And when you see more of these bubbles over multiple years I think you’ll start to understand that the ice is losing mass.”

But it may be a while before we see more ice caves. For now, the only evidence that this is happening is that of the bubbles found in the ice itself. And if we are to believe the stories about the frozen sea which is said to be full of millions of dead whales, I’m not going to be impressed. It looks like the only thing that our Earth has left to offer us with are the ice caves. I don’t know about you, but I’m going to have plenty of time for my next visit to the ice caves.

A NASA-funded study in 2013 found that the Universe is more than 8 billion years old, despite early estimates that it wasn’t more than 4.7 billion years old. This research was spurred by the discovery of a supernova remnant called SN 1994A in the southern sky, which happened to be the first star that astronomers had ever detected in the early Universe. In the study, the scientists examined the SN 1994A remnants in more detail and found they were very old, implying that the first stars arose more than 8 billion years ago. The paper published in The Astrophysical Journal [pdf] B

A paper about the recent detection of gravitational waves has been accepted for publication as an Astrophysical Journal Paper. The team led by researchers at Columbia University’s Blanton Center and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology examined the detection, which was made by the LIGOVirgo collaboration. The LIGO project is a collaboration between the USA and Italy. During the collaboration’s second run, which was completed in December 2017, another detection of gravitational waves was obtained, this time by the LIGO Livingston detector in Louisiana. A few days after that detection, a team from the University of Minnesota came forward to study this observation, reporting that the signals that were generated were indeed gravitational waves. A

The team led by the team at Columbia University’s Blanton Center and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology concluded that if you were to be standing on the edge of the gas when the universe was only 10 billion years old, you would likely be able to see dark matter particles called baryons, along with ordinary matter. The scientists performed a new study that concluded there is about as much mass in those particles as in all the solar systems in the observable universe C

When researchers in the Netherlands have discovered the most distant globular cluster in the universe, they have also named it. Researchers known as HIBINK are leading the study, using data from two telescopes located in Japan that were instrumental in the discovery of the first globular clusters 25 years ago. Their results are due to be published in the scientific journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, on 21 April, 2017 D

After two successful attempts, the European Space Agency’s (ESA) ExoMars lander has found a new piece of the Martian puzzle: a crater that appears to have formed from the flow of water and its heat, as well as the presence of water on the surface of the planet. The discovery was made during the lander’s first Martian phase, and the scientists are now analyzing the data in order to create a model of the region surrounding the impact site for use as a scientific target. The science team at the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in California announced the discovery as a paper submitted to the journal Nature [pdf]

That would then cause the gas orbiting the black hole to blow into a supernova, creating enough momentum and gravitational strain to bend the light back toward the black hole. The new research, published on May 9th in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, reveals that the light bends by an order of magnitude, meaning a brightness-change of less than 100 percent. More important, the scientists found in a number of different places (especially in the higher-frequency (a few parts in 10-200 000) regions) that these light bends are being generated by the black hole from more than one direction. This means that there is a strong possibility that the light is moving away from the black hole and heading back toward the disk it is embedded in. If the gas around the black hole has a magnetic field, that may cause the light to bend more sharply. However, the data suggests that most of these new-light bends are around the speed of light, with a few being at slower speeds that make their movements seem a bit uncertain.

But the new work is a great example of the beauty of the telescope as a tool in astronomy. Once the techniqueof searching for gravitational waves was established, it was very easy to show that the signal from gravitational waves was coming from very near to us. Although this could easily have been the case if we had not have discovered gravitational waves (at the time, the search included searches of black holes on neutron stars) this new finding on the radio wavelengthsfrom a neutron star is a sign of the importance of the radio telescope.

The most amazing part of all of the work is that the datacontributes to finding the source of the gravitational waves from black holes. That means that in order to get signals that are at the same frequency as the signals being measured, you need to find black holes, then look for signals from the holes to get a reliable frequency signal. The signals from black holes are rare. In that light, the ability to detect them in the first place was really important, and now, we know that theyarethere. If these signals really do come from the black holes themselves, then you can imagine thediscovery from the radio emissions thatmight come by next year. One other interesting point, I will quote in the paper on the radio emission from the black holes of the Sgr A* star in my next entry: [L]istening for the presence of gravitationals in the jet, a combination of two sources can be detected: B1, a pulsar with high velocities and a high energy, andB2, a neutron star. The radio emission from B1 might then be interpreted as a signal from the other source. In this situation, a combination of several possible sources could be considered. The source considered here, B1, is located at a distance of 200 arcsec away at the nearest location of gravitational waves. The expected detection (about 60 arcseconds) will be within a few years, thanks to an interferometer that operates on the Planck space satellite, and since the source is located in the plane of the plane of the Galaxy it is easily targeted. As for B2, its radio emission does notmatch the light from B1, in order to check the background and avoid any false positives. The signal might still be there!

This new paper gives a lot more details on how I think and believe the theory of gravitational waves, and that explains why this is so important to the future of astronomy. It goes in-depth on many of the details related to the source of the gravitational waves, as well as the details of the detection mechanisms and methods for the radio emission coming from the black holes, which have not been properly documented in a very long time. I really like that kind of detail to the ideas of physics, since a lot of it was found in my scientificbooks. This kind of work, and the fact that it is being published on May 9, 2017, which I would imagine has been a long time coming, is something that I can understand for myself. I am also pleased that it does not include any of the theoretical speculations that were put forward years ago that I do not believe are plausible. That being said, this work is fascinating and also interesting as an example of how the astronomy is used to look for physics bythe observationsand analysis of observations. This kind of work with the new technology has given astronomers a nice little taste of what to expect in very near future in terms of technology, and that would be very cool. I shall miss the days when I could look at the galaxies I knew in one light.

I highly recommend The Hubble Book on Cosmology . It is a great introduction to the whole field of cosmology. The first person account of cosmology, a good “introductory” book that can also be used to help a lay reader get caught up in this field. If you are interested in this field, then this book will help,

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