science

The black hole isn’t emitting light now, which is why the researchers can’t yet determine the exact properties of the black hole. A more accurate approach would be to use the high-powered telescopes at the South Pole to figure out what the black hole is emitting.

This new finding might help scientists to better understand how gravity affects the existence of small distant black holes. Scientists will be able to see how a black hole may be born, or grow, and what might happen when it reaches the end of its life. For example, some theory in the literature suggests that as a black hole nears the end of its life it might collapse in on itself to form a supermassive black hole. In such cases, the black hole may become very massive and, in the process, consume its host star, stripping off the star’s outer layers. This may be the last big black hole for our galaxy, and it could also explain what drives other galaxies to contract and coalesce to form the galaxies in which we live.

“This work is a useful contribution to our understanding of black holes,” said James R. O’Brien, a professor of Astronomy at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and a member of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory’s (NRAO) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and the NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. “The NRAO is already capable of acquiring images of distant objects in the early universe, but this capability is restricted by having to deal with the time and distance between Earth and the radio telescope. By extending the ACS to the outer reaches of the cosmic microwave background, the NRAO has the potential to image black holes in even more distant objects.”

For more information about NERVA, please go to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory website.

They form these little coalitions, and then work with each other, to win fights and thus protect their territories and make mates. Another insect, the black widow spider, has learned to kill off its enemies’ mates because it can kill so many of them in a given year. And a third wasp species, the wasp that lays eggs in leaves, has learned to avoid enemies by avoiding their nests until the nest has been completed, so that they wouldn’t reproduce even before they were ready.

As you can see, these insects have learned a very important system of social communication that is very important for both their survival and social harmony. It’s been called “a system of mutual information with a deep evolutionary antecedent” in this review , and it has been linked with other social life in the animal world.

What was it about wasp groups that led to this system of mutual information?

It appears that wasps and other insects form and organize co-operative bands and colonies (in which workers work with other workers inside the same nest, or in separate nests which are in close proximity to each other) by forming long term alliances and alliances between different workers and the ability of them to coordinate these relationships (and thus work cooperatively) and maintain the group.

The social aspect of these ants/spiders can’t be seen with a microscope (or a camera or a drone). But what I can see is a series of social dynamics in which workers, in all manner of social groups, are allowed to live and work with each other and co-operate among themselves and in the other social groups. I see a complex network of interactions within these groups that allows the ants and spiders to live in social groups of other members of their colonies and to have a life of their own.

I’d be interested in knowing how you explain the role that mutual information within the human social world will play in science fiction. Do you think of science fiction science as “ancient” science, with its “natural” laws, and so on, rather than as a way of making a scientific change in the real world that might occur in the future? Or do you think that in fiction science is always “re-invented” as something closer to science?

In addition to these two examples of evolutionary adaptations for communication being used in story writing, this question could be posed more generally, as well. I am more interested in seeing how science and human culture can be co-opted by other modes of information processing and co-operation and how those modes of relationship influence people’s real (as opposed to fictional) world.

Another question I’d be interested in exploring is how science and technology might lead to new ways of social relationships involving information processing and communication that I haven’t yet mentioned here.

This would be analogous to the story I talked about about the first example of mutual information between honeybees: we’ve already seen that bees create an intricate series of “routes of least resistance,” through which they maintain and move large communities within a given colony. We’re not really sure of the details of how they work yet, but what we do know is that we’ve already seen for how long they co-operated in this way in the bee world: that they are capable of establishing a “routes of least resistance.” They are also capable of creating new sorts of “routes of least resistance” in which the group becomes able to move larger groups of workers.

As for my theory, I don’t think that there are really two types of human societies, either biological or technological. I think there are also more complex human societies, just as there are more complex biological ones. In my book “The Science Fiction Revolution: The Future of Science Fiction,” I examine how the human realm of science fiction became more and more inter-connected with other parts of the social and technological realms, and how that convergence of science and technology led to some major, and far-reaching, changes in how people lived and worked as humans. In particular I focus on the intersection of science and technology with human-machine interaction, and the intersection of human and non-human forms of intelligence.

You’ve done some interviews with some of the leading voices in the science fiction community. I especially like the interview with William Gibson, for which I was interviewed by Terry Pratchett for his new novel The Screwtape Letters . The novel is a sci-fi story of the 20th century, loosely linked to stories of Gibson’s “Screwtape” series in which the “Vampire” characters are all human. As I discuss in the interview, many of the characters in the previous worksincluding the vampireswere fictional characters created by the author through his imagination. It may be that the author is taking some credit for creating some of these characters without author’s written permission, or there may be a

“I’ve read a lot of books or seen a lot of movie.” Saying his name is not exactly hard.

The star of “Lights Out: The Life and Times of a Street Star,” it was Pitt who took us on a tour about the night life of the Sunset Strip as he went from car to table to disco at the age of 14 to “wander through the streets of the Valley.” He’s also taken us on a series of fascinating adventures, including being chased out of San Francisco for robbing a bank and being a stuntman in “Ladies’ First”, “The Wild One,” “The Green Hornet” and “Vikings.” “It’s the last time you’ll ever hear me say ‘Ladies’ First,” the actor told us. “I’m not going to do that now.”

“There are people with a lot of wisdom who say that the only way your life is going to get better is if you do everything you can to avoid the possibility of losing interest in it,” the actor told us.” The celebrity-saturated social media era has a way of putting one out from the crowd–and that’s what seems to be happening with people talking a lot on Twitter, using social media, trying to get out there even just a little bit more, and they’re often doing that more than they were getting out there the past 50 years when everybody was just sitting on the couch.”

One of the key ingredients for having “quality social media” was allowing yourself to be “proud of who you are” and “focusing on what’s important,” the star said. And though it can feel a lot of pressure to be “more social than you are,” Pitt told us “many people take a lot of pride in that.”

“Our main goal with Twitter, or more broadly with all of that, is to share it with other people,” the actor added. “One of the ways we do that is by saying we don’t use it for making enemies and we feel it’s really important for us to share it with other people and they should do the same. I’m not going to say that it’s easy or free. I’m not asking for your hard-earned money or your free time.”

Though we’d like to think everyone could just take a minute and follow along and enjoy the fun of the social-media-free era. On the other hand, maybe not. Let us know in the comments the social-media time you’ve wasted trying to connect with us. But the truth is, you’ve been living in the moment. The world of social networking has a way of making you forget all that.

When it gets to the bottom of the soil where the soil in it is deep and clayey (so that any surface contaminants and other types of contaminants don’t stick to it), it will take about a 2.5-3 hours to dig the hole. The temperature will go up, and it may take an additional hour or so to put the probe in the hole. It will then start to dig up the soil layer that has covered it. The temperature of the soil will raise as well, and the excavator will work its way down into the soil layer and dig it up. Once it is digging out the soil and working the soil, the temperature will drop, and the digger will stop. The probe will start moving once all the dirt is gone. This step isn’t usually the most arduous part, but it creates holes that allow water to flow through the digging equipment, and is a lot more time consuming than digging a hole with soil.

When the digger is done, it is supposed to take the soil down and pour it into the pot. If it doesn’t do this, the soil can leak out the bottom or bottom of the pot again. The digger is supposed to pour out a stream of soil (approximately 10 gallons/250L) and drain it out again. This seems to be the typical operation, and one of the benefits to the new-style digger. If it doesn’t, then the soil can sit on the outside of the pot, and even freeze up on the outside. This is caused by a phenomenon called stratification, a result of not properly heating soil. That said, this is pretty cool and we aren’t complaining.

On with the main point…

The above diagram depicts the two diggers. Here it is (click for a larger version):

The larger digger has a larger pot, so much more water can be pumped into the pots if necessary in order to get rid of all the impurities and contaminants. The smaller digger will just dig into the back of the bigger digger. Of course, the larger digger can dig deeper, which means there is more scope for contamination to happen. Also, it takes longer, but the digger can dig deeper than the smaller digger. The only issues in using a larger digger are that the water must have a higher level of heat or it won’t reach deeper into the pot to get rid of all the impurities and contaminants.

After digging the pot, the diggers are supposed to pour out the whole contents of the pot in a bucket containing the pot and soil. At least that is what I was told, but there was no way for me to verify or verify there is no mixing. If the soil is contaminated, then there will be a lot of sediment in the bucket with the pot, and if the soil is not contaminated, there will not be a lot of sediment in a bucket with the soil. It is also important to note that none of my materials were contaminated with any type of microorganisms. I know I’ve mentioned “clay” in the past, but that was probably because I put it on the outside of my pot (a non-contaminating type of clay). In the photos I used, it could have been from a surface dirt that my pot was not properly sogged after it was dug. However, even if there was some surface dirt in the pot that might have been contaminated, I wouldn’t have put it in a bucket, and I certainly wouldn’t have put it in a bucket of soil with soil in there. My pots were not filled with anything. They were filled with an organic material (soil), and everything else was completely natural in appearance.

So, after some digging, we are left with all of ourselves looking pretty much clean.

The digger I used is a digger I picked up in Texas. I got it because I had a few holes that I wanted to fill in, and the best solution at the time was to simply chuck out a hole with soil in it (as I mentioned, a non-contaminating clay, as this pot isn’t), and then pour in the dirt and fill it. I also was worried it would make a big mess if I used it on a regular basis, but it did fine. I would have preferred to buy another one, but the price for an entire new digger was not very high. Just as long as you don’t mix it at your new home, it shouldn’t make much of a mess either.

Finally, the fun part…

The dirt that got poured out was mixed well with the pot, and as long as it wasn’t contaminated with “organic residue”, there was no problem. I was surprised, however,

So far I find this is a good solution. I will say that it may or may not work with other types of hard candy of course but it does work great with these. The downside of this is that you must first add to the mixer on low till you reach the desired consistency. This takes time to do each time you want a soft candy. I think it takes me about an hour for every 30 minutes of mixing. It also happens to be pretty hard and takes my cake mixer with a hand spindle attachment about 30 minutes to get to the consistency I like. I am on a budget though so no biggie. If you are careful, I believe you can shorten the time by using a spindle to put it into the mixer at the same time it is going to start getting too firm.

Once you get to your desired consistency, I cut the candy dough into small pieces. I cut the circles to be about 3/4 of the cookies or if your cut outs are too big, cut them shorter and make the smaller pieces more like the shape of your cookies. The cut out rounds work because they create a sort of a shell that keeps the inside open. This prevents the cookies from falling out of the pan.

Once you get the shape you want, it’s time to begin rolling the dough into balls. You can buy these little dough balls out of the freezer to save baking time. The thing to know is that because chocolate is much harder to roll than any other kind of candy dough, you can actually feel it when you are rolling out the balls. This is actually very handy to have for getting the cookie dough ball right. After you have rolled the dough onto the cookie sheet, it’s time to get it into the pans they come in. I used to have a little round tinfoil pan and because I couldn’t open that easily enough, I had to find a way to cut it out of the plastic in the freezer. I would not recommend that for other purposes though (such as baking, I can’t.) Just be careful with the cutting part of the cookies because these can easily get crushed.

When you have a lot of cookies (I usually only had a few little pieces leftover from the baking and I really don’t know how the rest went), you need to take the cookies out of the pans. First I just put them onto a piece of parchment paper and press them out. Then I cover them with plastic wrap, then a clean towel and put them in the freezer to re chill (if you have the freezer aisle open, that’s a good time if you wanted some extra cookies)

Next I go back into the freezer to make sure the cookies won’t burn on your counter or something so I can set it aside.

ThenI put the cookies back in the freezer again to chill again. This is important– because I like to be able to take the cookies out of the pans and place them on counter so that they wouldn’t burn and burnaway before they get to the right size, putting them back in the freezer so bad that they burn when they’re done chilling actually makes them that much less fragile.

Now once the cookies are well chilled, you need to cut them into different shapes by hand. Before doing that, make sure a sharp knife is out (you can see where I cut my holes on the top of cookie dough balls so that I can hold the cookie dough ball with the hole cut out (you can also tell from the outline on the cookie ball). It is crucial to get all the cut pieces and shape of the cookies right so that you can handle them carefully as you make them. You need to be careful that your cut edges don’t come in contact with your metal or plastic cutting board surface.

Once you have the size of your cut up and shaped, cut out about 1/3 of the cookie ball (the holes) of your cookies. This is called cookie assembly– when you are finished cut your cookies into smaller pieces– you don’t want cookie pieces that are too big to handle comfortably.

Then carefully cover each cookie with a piece of plastic, the other piece of plastic going in the middle hole. Then wrap the cookie with another piece of plastic and that is the cookie cake. (I cut out a few extra cookie cake pieces to replace one because I kept having to replace pieces of cookie dough while the cake was baking.)

Once you are done baking, let the cake stand out on a rack and place it in the fridge for about 3 hours. If you need to bake the cobbler while its still sitting out, remove the oven rack and put it in the oven on high for a few minutes. Once it’s ready, place the cake back in the fridge. (If it’s coming out of the fridge, it is perfect if you run hot water over it; in fact

and the reefs are in trouble , so to see a photo like this is pretty shocking. If they had a little compassion on this planet they would save that sea turtle life. Not that we need a planet full of creatures like this to live in, so let’s just hope that this little fellow did not drown.

So do not panic yet. A lot of the recent bleaching has occurred at cooler ocean temperatures than we are often used to today. This is good news because although temperatures should warm up, they are not being warmed up enough. But if ocean temperatures do not warm enough, the corals will die off as well as the coral and other organisms that rely on them for food. This is especially true in areas where the oceans are currently very dry or are near the edge of being dry and thus the animals that live in that habitat are being killed off. In other words the whole picture of a changing Earth is likely to look very much like a very big wet one. What should you do? If you live further from the mainland, then get in one of those air conditioners and save yourself a lot of energy, but if you live near the coast watch out for these massive bleaching events that will hit as soon as we get more rainfall. You may have to keep an eye out for the same phenomena that cause the bleaching for a bit longer and maybe a couple times a year during the rest of this year and next. The other thing that you can do to help protect your sea turtles is start saving them or helping them escape on some kind of boats. If you see any of these little guys you could have them tossed out into the ocean to recover. Then that will give them a chance to survive the next bleaching event at the ocean surfaces and the next time our oceans are in the dark. What needs to be done for these turtles is to keep those air conditioning units on, keeping them warm and to not let them die of starvation but just in case you see these animals. There are a lot of ocean creatures out there. Just a few that are not to be laughed at.

Image courtesy of the NOAA Coral Triangle Project The other good news is the bleaching does not seem to be the most devastating thing on the horizon. A big problem with this kind of bleaching event is as soon as it is over it will usually just slow down and let certain kinds of fish to catch up, but at the most important or most critical time of the year we will usually see the animals that depend on the reefs die off and everything will go back to normal within about a week. So it is really not like this is going to be a massive blow to marine life throughout the ocean. Instead it will show how fragile everything is on the world’s biggest island and how vulnerable we are as well as how many species rely on the ocean all around us. So take advantage of the year we have right now and be thankful that sea turtles can survive for the future. UPDATE (12/19): All of these stories about bleaching events are getting more and more bizarre. There is now even something called ‘inshore bleaching’ that is causing animals to die in and on land, not in the ocean. All these stories have now become a lot more bizarre and just as disturbing as when these images were showing up.

Source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-32163421 (thanks to http://whosaywithfloran.blogspot.com) The good thing is that people on this side of the Pacific are doing some very good things. There are many scientists, organizations, and even companies and organizations dedicated to saving this planet and we need to make sure that they are getting their voice heard. These things happen to us all the time in this part of the world that we are so used to and we need to remind ourselves that one day we will be back here in a long way and that this time will definitely bring a little bit more of the Earth’s history with it.

via Science Times . Read the other side ofthe story . Via ScienceDaily ; “Researchers at the Belgian National Center for Scientific Research (CNES), in Brussels, and the Netherlands Institute for Geobiology in Rotterdam, tested three types of bird flu viruses, including the bird fluCORVOVAR19 that can be transferred among birds.

The virus did not infect any of the birds tested and had just the right amount of activity to allow it to infect other birds and humans and be passed on to humans, according to a summary of the work published today (August 6) in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . “The experiment shows a large, but very small, effect size, which will not alter our understanding of the real and potential scale of the flu virus. This experiment shows that a more powerful, and safer way to spread the virus, is the transfer of the virus to people.” Scientists at the Netherlands Institute for Geobiology in Rotterdam created simulations of corvid contact with the experimental virus in addition to real bird flu virus in the hopes of testing the potential for virus spread into humans. Scientists found that even if the birds were completely at their best in the simulation, a direct contact with the experimental virus would result in a small, but statistically significant, increased risk of disease. The simulated virus that was able to spread into the birds was about 1/1,000th the size of real bird flu virus in the laboratory. With an “explosive” increase because of the virus being spread directly to birds, it is not clear how the virus could spread to humans, but the simulation suggests that it could. “We observed a high number of contacts between the experimental and simulated virus, which is quite large, but not comparable to the real virus,” said the scientists from the CNES-CEU and the Netherlands Institute for Geobiology, said.

“This experiment makes clear that people can be exposed to a virus simply by doing something it is forbidden-like touching a bug, but this is really just the beginning,” said Philippe Bouillon, a professor at CNES who led the research. “It is also interesting to note that the results are in accordance with a hypothesis that was tested in 2008, so this paper shows that the virus can do something as small as a direct contact to animals, which has been done already in the wild. It is also very exciting that we can say at the same time that the virus is indeed small, and can spread as easily as it did in the study.” “When you have a small virus, then how can you spread it? And if you can’t spread it, it’s like you are very far away from it,” notedJin Weiping, Director of CNES and head of CNES’s Viral Infection Research Division in Brussels. It is also important to note that the simulated virus is a mixture of virus strains that are not natural,and so it is not suitable for comparison withany known virus strains or natural human infections. “In the real world,human populations are not susceptible to these types of transmission,” said Bouillon. “Infections with a truly small virus, or with a novel virus, posemuch less health risks to people.”

“We don’t know yet if the infection with the experimental virus could spread further, but in the simulation, we clearly see that a direct contact with the experimental virus results in a very small but statistically significant increased risk of disease in wild populations of avian influenza, and this is a key feature for viral control and for human vaccination campaigns. In the lab, we can see how many people may be exposed to a virus that could cause many things other than the flu, but in the wild it is probably not a very significant risk. Our study shows a large but very small effect, which will not alter our understanding of the real and potential scale of the flu virus,” said Boullon.

The study is one of several on influenza virus from the field experiment. “Our research also showed that our method of infecting birds with real virus for transmission into humans, without infecting humans is possible and sustainable, and this is a basic model for virus-animal transmission in human populations,” said Bouillon. “We are very pleased with our study of avian influenza and with the new findings that support the concept of avian influenza. The experimental laboratory virus does not allow for this, and we will continue to explore whether a direct contact can result in an additional threat to humans,” Weiping added.

###

Mars Express has plans of its own that range back further in time, to the ancient moon Phobos as part of the Phobos-Grunt mission. (If you haven’t read yet about Mars Express, it’s the spacecraft which made the first ever flyby of Mars. It was launched in 2002, so they’ve had a long record of exploring the red planet.)

On Earth, Mars is like China to the global scientific world. You have a lot of good and high-quality science going forward and are currently able to see all the data in the world, but you still have to understand the basics of science. The Chinese government is trying to do that now with the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) and the Mars Exploration Rovers, and other spacecraft. The problem is, China produces far more scientific data than any of its global competitors and the money that is being spent on the two programs has led to a problem as the cost keeps going up and up.

Now, I don’t want to paint the Chinese into a corner, and many people will point to that and say how bad science is going on in China today, which is true. I think many people are underestimating it here. That’s certainly the case of the MSL program. The initial cost was estimated at over $10 billion, and it didn’t turn out too well at all. The program got a lot of pushback from the Chinese people who had an ideological problem with the very science of Earth - and with our Earth - and they didn’t buy the idea that the science of Mars could potentially work there. They knew their science would fail, so they didn’t want to do that.

Now, MSL and the Russian MAV (Mars Atmospheric Vehicle) are not going to have problems with a similar problem: MSL is going to be about the same cost as the Russian version and it’s going to launch every two years for that period. Its first two missions, Exploration Marathon and Opportunity, were pretty good successes. We don’t have a Mars sample return yet, but we have at least some ideas as to when we’d like to do that. There are things in the science community that are looking at it.

But the problem with the big Chinese space projects is that we are now doing almost every other important endeavor – climate change, water, agriculture, even mining – from those other countries. It is a little bit difficult now for China to have the same level of leadership internationally as they are now doing. We know that it’s not just about science going on here in China. Many people look back at it today, and wonder how it could ever be done in China.

But, as you know, China is more than just the science. They want to create the image as being a leader in space. But what that means is they don’t do what Japan does in the world…they do most of their space in low-Earth orbit. They’re trying to do some work with the International Space Station, but the space station is expensive and the ISS is not there.

I’ve talked a lot about the Chinese culture and how they have an image problem. It’s their image problem. If you talk to Chinese scientists, they really think it’s not good enough to have that kind of technology, they don’t want to be seen as a follower of the United States for science or technology in space. Many of their people think they should be doing stuff abroad so people won’t think they’re so primitive.

But it’s not that simple. China has a great investment in space technology. Their space program is well known, and many Chinese companies have been involved in the early stages of the program. They are investing in it in the Chinese space industry here, and they have a lot of that investment.

If you’re coming from the United States, you get the impression that China spends a lot of money, and that’s pretty accurate. But, as an American, I think you need to look at how people make their decision. Does what’s available on Earth provide a good product for the best value? If it doesn’t, it really shouldn’t be there. The science at ISS is amazing. The economics of it are bad. The U.S. should be doing this, but we’re not.

That’s why a lot of the work that was done in the U.S. to make it work better – to make it a sustainable science program – is being done here.

Now, I know people always say that the Chinese, because of the image thing, want to pursue science. They think that making science a priority in the government is the way to make China a leader in space. But you have to

The NASA selection team released its preliminary list of potential names on Twitter . Most of them aren’t too bad. It’s important to emphasize that only one of the finalists is likely to be chosen and NASA’s selection committee is still discussing options. Three other finalists have been chosen , but at least there’s a possibility that one is added in the wake of a formal announcement. One of those names was chosen late in the afternoon from a pool of over 700 names.

The names, submitted in alphabetical order. The team also released the first batch of the nine finalists , who all meet one or more of the following criteria: 1. Ability to work on the ground 2. Ability to live on the Mars surface. 3. Ability to work in the Mars laboratory (such as in the rover’s control room). 4. Ability to work independently on the Mars laboratory. 5. Ability to be able to safely operate on the Mars laboratory. 6. Ability to live in austere isolation, as long as there is no threat of radiation. (The Mars Life Support Laboratory is being built in Texas.) 7. Ability to work in a climate suitable for life-on-Mars. 8. Ability to work in isolation, as long as there is no threat of harm to others on Mars. 9. Ability to live as close to Mars as possible in austere isolation and with no other humans. The Mars Life Support Laboratory Mars Curiosity Rover will be the first human-to-Mars mission that NASA will make. ( NASA Ames -The Mars Science Laboratory Mission , p. 13)

The Curiosity rover has a variety of scientific instrumentsdesigned to understand the geology and the atmosphere of the surface of Mars. This part of the mission should be completed before the end of the year , when the rover should begin the next part of its plan. (Source NASA - Mars Science Laboratory Mission, p. 13)

The rover’s remote sensing instrument (RMI) has the unique capability to “see” in the ultraviolet (UV) region and to assess in detail the chemical structure of the ancient Martian surface. (Source NASA: http://www.nasa.gov/msl3)

The Mars Science Laboratory is NASA’s first robotic terrestrial exploration mission that will put humans on Mars. ( NASA - Mars Science Laboratory Mission , p. 9-10)

Some other interesting stuff about a natural disaster:

1) When the last big volcanic eruptions occurred over 1,000 years ago, it took about 40 years for the resulting debris to settle and spread around the planet, and even more to die off quickly enough before the oceans or land died off.

2) “We’re pretty sure that if you can get more than one or two earthquakes in 100 years, you’re going to get a major volcanic eruption,” says David Titley, director of the Southwest Research Institute and a professor of earth sciences at Arizona State University. If you got an 18-month period while someone sits on a chair, is the air around them really stale with pollutants, and people are breathing in dust and garbage? It’s certainly a concern. Most of the big volcanic eruptions were of low magnitude, the only ones that created significant damage on land. This study published Jan. 12 in Science indicates that an 18-month-long period of the “precautionary Principle.” When the last big volcanic eruptions occurred over 1,000 years ago, it took about 40 years for the resulting debris to settle and spread around the planet, and even more to die off quickly enough before the oceans or land died off. 3) “The same principle can be invoked by a natural disaster,” says Titley. “If you put yourself in a really bad situation with a lot of risk that the community hasn’t prepared for, it may be better to wait and avoid that disaster. This doesn’t negate the need for people to be prepared. It just shows that you can avoid the worst conditions with pre-disaster planning.” In fact, research by Titley and his associates showed that, to the degree that someone is willing to admit to an impending catastrophe, they are less likely to die when living on that coast than those who say “well, I have lots of things to do.” In this way, a pandemic seems like a good opportunity for people to look back on times when the people on their island wouldn’t have seen a way to help themselves.

This is a great post on the subject. I agree wholeheartedly with Dr. Titley, and I suspect that his research will also influence scientists and policy makers in the near and long term. So what else are we waiting for?

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