science

If they can determine if there are other types to be identified, it could shed light on how normal supernovae work. The discovery is published in The Astrophysical Journal .

One of the best known types of supernova is a Beta Bursts-type which is triggered by a massive explosive star with gamma rays and high UV’s. It can only occur when there is a star that is so massive and dense with superheated hydrogen gas it collapses into a single black hole. Since the gas is already in a state that can exist at these temperatures it doesn’t produce light. So a Beta Bursts is simply an exploding star exploding with a large amount of light and energy. Some Beta Bursts don’t collapse to form a black hole at all. One example is a Beta Bursts that occurred 2 billion years ago. The bright white dot at the bottom is the supernova remnant of that explosion. The image below is a color composite of the original Beta Bursts and now has colors from X-ray to optical to ultraviolet to visible light to infrared. There are around 50 Gamma Bursts-type events a year in space. Although we are only a few hundred light years away from Alpha Centauri, a single Beta Bursts has the potential of destroying the planet. It is the destruction of that star that produces Beta Bursts. That star is so dense it would create a black hole about 6,300 times the mass of our Sun:

Beta Bursts-Type Explosions

You can see how massive the star is in the image below.. That star is the Alpha Centauri system. All normal supernovae, Beta’s, X’s, Y’s, and Z’s are produced by massive stars such as our Sun. At the top of the image on the right is the supernova remnant of that supernova. That black hole would make the object the size of the Earth and a few times larger than our Sun. We’ve observed beta’s in the process before - when a star blows through its second or third generation of massive stars, at the top of the picture to the left you can see a bright X with a thin disk surrounded by two brighter X’s pointing in the same direction. This is the ejection of a companion star from another source of supernova material (aka ‘cubic’ supernovae ).

A normal supernova has gamma ray and ultraviolet light, the red part of the image. Beta Bursts create visible light, the yellow and green parts of the image. Beta Bursts often have flashes of X rays and light seen in the X-ray wavelength range. The X-ray emission from Beta Bursts is often much more efficient than the X-ray emission from supernova remnants since they take place so quick. There is a fairly rare type of supernova known as a Type X-Blast, or Type III. It will create X-ray gamma rays and UV radiation, but not the more common gamma ray and optical emission. The blue region of the image in a yellow background is a white dwarf like star that will be burnt out. The red part of the image is X-rays and UV emitted light from the explosion. Beta Bursts are actually the more common type of supernova producing X-rays, but X-rays as the image above shows are also the more prevalent. There may be a few billion possible types of supernova that trigger a type X-Blast - the only thing that stops us from picking one of them is that some of these will lead to a more compact supernova. The Beta Bursts from an X-Blast will still blast out high energy gamma rays and X rays by escaping the host star. The type of X-Blast typically starts out with a mass around 100 times that of our Sun, and it stays about that weight. This means it is still about 11 percent as dense as normal supernovae. If it’s less dense it’s going to be more energy and less light. So it explodes, but only with a very small amount of high energy light. This means the blast emits a large amount of light and some of it escapes along with the X-ray and UV radiation. We don’t know the specifics of which type of X-Blast will trigger each type of supernova. A better clue might come around 20 billion years from now when the Universe is only about 13 billion years old, although that’s highly unlikely.

_ Space Station/ Mission Tim Alatorre

http://www.geoscientist.com/article.cfm?id=102363


Virtually All Current Missions Are Struck By The Major Risk Factor

By Steven Shaviro. “This year on April 8, the first flight of the privately built Space Transportation System, or SLS, will be launched into orbit aboard a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket. SLS has been under development for more than a decade. The primary goal of the plan is to make a small moon city on the moon that will function as a base of operations for the future human explorers, who want to visit our planet’s two distant moons. Now that SpaceX has achieved its goal, where will the next two generations of robotic and human astronauts start? Are they headed out to Mars or not?” “For over a century, scientists and engineers have known what they have been working on. Now everyone knows what they have done, but few of them want to go beyond what they are working on. Some say that this is because the people who are working on SLS and the space station may use the same techniques they work on. But my question is, the scientists have been working for decades, are they going to be put in the position of using the same techniques they worked on? If they do not, and if the scientists who do that work not see any new science or technology, then they won’t know what to do with their science? There has been a great deal of concern about the safety of the astronauts and the possibility of a devastating disaster. This may be exacerbated. NASA is not well equipped, nor is it able to answer this particular question. The biggest safety factor is that no one really knows yet . It is the major risk factor for a new generation of human explorers. They want to get to our two distant moon moons and they need a base of operations to do so.” “To address this fundamental problem with the entire NASA program, I am proposing a major reorganization of human exploration to ensure that the missions are as safe as possible and to maintain the capability of human exploration beyond Earth. This reorganization includes a new National Space Exploration Policy (NSEP). The NSEP will be the blueprint for the national space exploration program. And it will be in the federal budget annually and for the next five years. The NSEP will also be the main framework by which I want the Congress to understand the federal government’s future investments and strategies.”

“We must do everything we can to prepare people for the future in Mars and beyond. We can either let them wait and hope that NASA will continue to be able to successfully develop and execute new missions to our solar system’s distant planets and moons, or we can begin to build more of them. Only it will be our decision together. It will be like a journey to Mars and back or a journey through space. The journey of a voyage would be more like the journey back in space. The journey of a voyage would be more like space .” “First, consider what the human future looks like today, and how we might get there in the future. People are living in the best place on Earth right now, in some of the safest areas in the world. What happened is only one of a many tragedies that have happened in our existence that could have been avoided. I believe that the most common way to change the world in the future, is to change your attitude toward the world. You don’t have to be radical or unusual; what you need is to change your attitude toward the world. Your attitude changes how you see the world, how you treat things, how others look at you, and how the world is perceived in relation to you. If you do that today, you can change the world tomorrow.” “Your attitude changes how you see the world, how you treat things, how others look at you, and how the world is perceived in relation to you. If you do that today, you can change the world tomorrow .” “The last time I was in Washington, I had a couple of meetings where I addressed Congress and presented ideas for new space exploration. I made these presentations, not only because they had an agenda, but also because I wanted to tell the nation that our government was serious about continuing some space exploration programs. Our president, he is, now, we are in for another 10 years. We have a whole new world, all it will look like, and we do not yet know what it is like. We only know it will be exciting. It always is. I am optimistic that this will continue. The time where there is a risk factor is when you see the risk factor, and it is so much in the way of what we can do with our current technology that is out there as it relates to our goals about this country, and in the way of what we can do with our international efforts.”

On April 8, 2018 the first SpaceX Falcon 9 Rocket will be Launched and

:A team of researchers from Xiamen University and Zhejiang University (,), together with students from Shanghai Central Normal University, has succeeded in repairing the teeth of the human tongue and ear stem. To repair the teeth, the scientists used the technique of laser ablation, and it had been shown that it can fully repair the enamel of the gum cells. :A team of researchers from Guangzhou Normal University and Xi’an Jiaotsong University has succeeded in producing nanoparticles using a combination of liquid and gas phase chemical chemistry and is now looking for its application in pharmaceutical. :A team of researchers from Sichuan University and Guangdong Polytechnic College has discovered a way of using gold nanodiamonds to create a composite coat on the surface of the human body. :The team of researchers from Beijing University and Southern Polytechnical University (Shanghai Jiaotong University) has found a new method of using a laser light beam to generate a 3D form of a layer of tiny carbon nanotubes. :A team of researchers from Xiamen University and Zhejiang University have successfully built a 3D prototype for organic LED panel. :A team of researchers from Nanjing University has successfully developed a way to print electronic devices in a form that is hard to destroy. :A team of students from Hebei Medical University has been working on 3D printing 3D models of human teeth. :A team of researchers from Guangzhou Normal University, Sichuan University and Shanghai Jiaotong University has succeeded in 3D printing dental prostheses. :The research on 3D printing teeth has been completed. :An experimental 3D print of the teeth of an old Japanese patient was successfully completed by university students. :Researchers from Shanghai Jiaotong University, Zhejiang University and Beijing Jiaotong University have successfully printed organs and parts to test their 3D printing technologies on human tissue. :A team of researchers from Sichuan Normal University and the Zhejiang University has perfected the 3D printing of heart valves using three-dimensional printing technology. :A 3D print of the human head was successfully completed. :Chinese scientists have successfully put the world’s first functional 3D printed car in motion with this 3D printer-car combination.

These three new approaches have made 3D printing a lot more affordable and accessible to a wide audience. This also has brought the benefits of faster printing speeds, better surface-sensing capabilities and a large variety of alternative materials.

One of the key challenges in 3D printing is improving the materials and technologies used in the process. One day, it is possible to bring this technology to the commercial market in a way that will improve the lives of millions rather than just a few people.

How cool could it be to play and play a bit of tennis? And I thought, ‘This is so cool that I might as well do it myself.’” I remember being so excited to have that moment. I felt like I was there watching the magic happen. And with the magic, the two of us, our coaches and our tennis players had met our destiny of playing together on a daily basis for the next 8 years.

After tennis, I played on the team of an awesome high energy girl that also happened to be from an upper grade soccer program. She got me good to the point where I could run and jump and play in varsity leagues. It was the high school level and I was the senior, but I was pretty good. So I was pretty good at soccer. Even though, at 18, I hadn’t played and really had no idea what I was doing. I figured it would all work out in the end!

So, despite not really thinking about my career path as much as I should have, it didn’t happen (I think I just started at the same time and was in my first year of high school). But it happened somehow and that’s when I realized the power of sports, of the chance to make a difference or maybe just be helpful. Not that long after that, I was the first ever person in the world to win the Grand Slam while playing soccer.

That second year of playing soccer was fun, especially the whole “I’m not playing for my school” problem, but it also exposed me to so many other things I missed out on when I was growing up playing a sport at an elite level, seeing my favorite celebrities, and seeing other people who weren’t doing it, like my sister and my best friend. And having to play soccer in the same year as my son’s birthdays, birthdays, and graduations.

After high school, I studied business at a regional university, but didn’t really enjoy what I was doing I was pretty bored and had no interest in reading, writing or studying.

I was a fairly successful business owner before I realized how hard it was in business to make a living at something, especially when you run your own business. And I could have never been successful as a coach had I stuck with it like I did.

When I read that article about how the team that I coached at one time played tennis in the Olympicsand that was the first time that I made such an attempt to help my teams get to the Olympic level, even though they’re not even top 25 on the RPI, well, that was just one more one of those moments when everyone becomes aware that the greatest joy in life is making a difference for others.

We are all heroes and no-one says it better than Mark Twain.

There’s only one way to see it: to be that hero.

————————– THE BLACK HOLE Theories ————————–

“As the Universe’s largest black hole, it would hold the imprint of an entire universe stretching almost infinite distances into the distant past. It would also have been endowed with the same amount of mass as our sun! “The existence of a vast black hole would have required a cosmic event many orders of magnitude greater than the Big Bang. A few minutes to millions of years later and all that structure would have vanished, leaving the surface of a rapidly expanding bubble where the black hole could gradually fill in over time and create the present Universe. But what would become of the matter of this massive, chaotic system? What might it do to create all the life on Earth? This would be the largest black hole ever, and the most powerful - the black hole would be able to destroy all life on Earth.” http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/120411/srep01078.html

Hugh Ross

“Black holes can be very damaging objects: their gravitational influence, if not quite powerful enough, can destroy the universe, and they are huge. However, as all black holes we know exist (except for the one in our own solar system) are really black holes, so they can be very difficult to detect (for the same reason it is very hard to see anything in a black hole). The last time we saw one of these was in 2008, when one took a huge chunk, known as LIGO-Virgo, from the sky and was observed for a few seconds. A year on and it is still very hard to see anything on LIGO-Virgo, but the fact that it continues to be visible and that there has always been some detectable signal from it suggests that our knowledge and technology are improving, and that there is a future for astronomers to study black holes.” http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/09/2006091603164.htm

“It is widely thought that the giant black hole thought to be at the centre of the Milky Way galaxy harbors a mass of about 100 times that found in the nearby supermassive black hole at the centre of our own galaxy.” http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-12270073

To begin an explanation of the black hole concept -

In 1919, the Swiss physicist Rudolf Busemann realised that the universe had a ‘cosmic nucleus’. Busemann said this would be at the centre of large galaxies, and it would be a point where the material which makes up the galaxy’s structure also made up its size. This nucleus, Busemann concluded, was ‘like a black hole’. He named it a black hole and it has been identified for billions of years as the source of most of light and energy in the universe. Theoretically it can no longer be located. However, the very process of looking for it is what scientists call cosmic probing. It is an exercise in finding out whether or not an object that normally would be invisible would be a black hole. It takes a lot of effort and persistence, and a lot of experience knowing that the information is out there and very exciting. Busemann showed that it actually took less energy to throw a neutron, which the physicists call a particle of dark energy, than a proton which is called a particle of light. Since there were only a few trillion neutrinos in the Universe, this shows that it can now be found - something that is very exciting and exciting to a lot of researchers. The black holes also require very powerful telescopes, as their effects are so magnified. In addition, they need to be in a special place or conditions. This is the best way to find a black hole.

The biggest ever experiment in astronomy is searching for the supermassive black hole at the centre of a galaxy called Sagittarius A* (Sag, for short). Black holes are the extreme ends of a very large spectrum of stars, where not even light can escape. A supermassive black hole is 1 million times smaller than an ordinary black hole. It eats up any energy in the star’s core and causes it to cool down to near absolute zero. Although the temperature and pressure of the supermassive black hole could cause fusion reactions to break out, they are unlikely. Instead the black hole probably emits the energy.

Many scientists believed that the best place for the black hole to be is in our own galaxy. This is because they believed that it would not be able to escape from its own gravity. This view is based on mathematical modelling that says a small, but still significant amount of energy must be released, similar to the way that a car will stall on a busy road when it loses all traction.

However, all of this does not seem true in practice. Observations from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope on Mount Wilson in California are showing evidence for mass loss in the black hole. They have identified a


What we can say about Planet X, the planet that’s circling our sun but isn’t

Astronomers hope to catch a glimpse of the elusive planet beyond Jupiter by measuring its brightness and detecting radio emissions and other clues, but they’re so far away that it will take decades for them to reach their destination.

NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft will enter its closest approach to Pluto on July 14 and approach the dwarf planet in September. Astronomers aim to use New Horizons’ historic data to get a “giant leap” closer to the Sun-like planet.

The new NASA and New Mexico Institute of Mining & Technology’s (NMIT) Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter’s LRO orbiter will get an unprecedented look at the region of space where the dwarf planet is and that are likely to become our first targets.

The researchers want to see if there’s an atmosphere on the other side of the sun-size planet as well as for clues about what causes it.

The area where New Horizons passes through will probably be warmer than most Earth’s orbits, similar to the outermost edge of our solar system, according to the proposal.

The LRO data and any other information obtained from the probe could help scientists figure out when the planet formed and when it became tidally locked, with one side facing the Sun. The team’s goal is to learn as much as possible about how it formed.

It’s an icy and mysterious world that’s in line with theories about the formation of our solar system. The team estimates that it was born about 4.5 billion years ago, making it the youngest planet in the solar system. The planet’s atmosphere likely covered the planet from the time of formation during an epoch when most stars were still relatively bright.The proposal also hints at a possible link between the exoplanet and a relatively recent outburst in the Milky Way, a star-forming explosion that causes the loss of gas clouds from other stars.

The researchers hope to learn more about the chemistry of water on Pluto and perhaps how many other giant planets there may be.

Bill Kurth, an astronomer at the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in Germany, said that the idea for the project is an exciting one. “A planet like these is something we can only imagine.”

Pluto, Kuiper Belt object and the inner solar system has an estimated mass of about 9 times that of the earth and is about the size of Jupiter, said the proposal’s lead author, William Gray, in an interview with NASA TV on Monday. Pluto’s atmosphere is approximately 60,000 Earth-equivalent tons. “We want to learn what it might feel like on our planet, what it’s like to live on it,” Gray said.

The plan is to take detailed measurements of the planet before its most distant approach in September, and again before its closest approach in October, according to New Horizons plan author Dr. Lori Thaler.The new LRO orbiter will be able to capture images of the planet at various distances from the sun. “That’s the next step before we can see Pluto truly,” Thaler said.

The plan also includes a novel method called adaptive optics that will be used to figure out where Earth-size objects like Earth are in space from an image, Thaler said. “We use adaptive optics to get you, if it’s a close-approach target, closer so we can measure it.”

The concept includes the concept of making a series of images of the planet so that they all look the same and then looking back to check if any particular object was captured and how close is that object compared to the Earth.

My husband can’t believe how cool it is out here. “Look, I’m in the tropics, and temperatures are dropping by 4 or 5 to 6 degrees per year. Maybe it was a big solar flare.” If this were actually caused by humans, a huge meteor strike might have been a big deal, but it’s not. The planet isn’t on the up-and-up. We’ve seen this exact same thing with climate change. It doesn’t make much sense to call the changes in temperatures due to greenhouse gases, when we’re seeing temperatures plummeting by 4 or 5 degrees per year. Some scientists think that warming might well be happening due to that.

“In other words, the planet is in this weird place … It’s an illusion that global warming is caused by greenhouse gases. It’s really the result of an intense Sun,”

The sun is not a greenhouse gas. There was a very nice and brief period in the 1990’s where the sun got super intense. We saw a huge increase in the amount of solar energy reaching the earth. That was a good thing for our plants and the earth’s climate. What happened? The atmosphere warmed, and as a result, the earth cooled by about 0.1C. After that, it cooled back down about 0.8C or so.

However, when the sun returns in about 15, 20, 25 years, there might be a slight cooling, causing the planet to cool back down by a little more than 0.1C. The sun is a big natural (or manmade) source of energy, but that doesn’t mean it can’t do some damage. As we saw over the past few months, those solar storms could take out power. So can the effects of global warming.

“Climate change is the worst example of anthropogenic climate change.” In the past few years, the planet has warmed up a lot. This was caused by CO2, as well it seems. It’s really hard to tell from the heat content of air. But there IS a lot of CO2. So for all to date, humans have contributed about 2/3 of the energy to the earth’s atmosphere. We humans can and will continue to play a role, but it’s been quite passive, at least compared to the energy sources described above. For some reason that just doesn’t fit with global warming. It’s an illusion.

“Climate change has been ongoing for the past twenty years. Why is it so slow? “

Oh geez. This is a good one. You’ve all been very patient so far. The IPCC had no clue as to why the climate was doing and wasn’t doing so hot last century. It had no idea about any of the “global warming.” The reason for the slow warming? Humans are not heating up the planet as much, as quickly as would be needed to keep pace with the runaway greenhouse effect. A lot of it might have to do with the large difference between the Earth’s radiative forcing (the heat trapping effect of other stars in the solar system) and the total amount of energy that the greenhouse effect can pull out of the air. But it doesn’t mean greenhouse gases don’t have any warming effect. Just that the heat trapping effect can’t be seen. All humans can do is make sure they try to take as much carbon out of the atmosphere as possible . Which is why in the past few years, people have been driving cars that are about 50 percent more efficient than they were 20 years ago (which will be done over the next decade or so), because they’re really trying.

“It is a very slow warming, and so the planet is not in a lot of trouble because it could be ice melting and the air is not being warmed.”

For a while there it looked like it might be ice melting. It’s possible. The warming might last a while, but it’s not like we don’t just need to do more to address this. The atmosphere needs to warm. It’s the earth’s core that has to warm up to bring in the planet’s carbon. Or the heat in the ocean is going to be released into the atmosphere quickly. You do think it’s warming slower as a result of that, or a “pump” in the ocean?

“People are now starting to understand that our greenhouse gas emissions are contributing to climate change, which is a positive contribution, but we don’t need to do that much to be doing some good by it. And by that, they are referring to the human effect on climate. We’re not responsible for climate change if, for example, human emissions

This story will focus on the North Atlantic Gyre, the subtropical gyre that fills the middle of the ocean. This region is not only not influenced by the oceanographic oscillations in the North Pacific or the Atlantic, it is very stable. There are two main factors that determine the stability of a gyre at different basins. These factors are the size and relative surface currents. These two factors are discussed, along with the influence of other factors, in The Influence of the North Atlantic Gyre on the Atlantic Multi-decadal Variability, by Zuberi, et al. in the Journal of the Oceanophysical Society, vol. 71, no. 1, pages 1261-1271.

And the North Atlantic Gyre’s influence is likely not just limited to the North Atlantic.

While there is a positive relationship between the size of the North Atlantic gyre and the number of hurricanes in a tropical storm’s central pressure area, the influence of the North Atlantic Gyre is not as great as was originally believed. In the 1970s researchers theorized that, since wind strength and size are inversely related, the number of hurricanes in a tropical storm’s circulation region influences the size of the pressure region in which that storm forms and thus influences the overall strength of the storm. However, this was the only study that investigated just the North Atlantic, and also not with hurricanes that were at the center of such a belt. … The strongest (strongest) hurricane systems of the past have all formed in the Central Atlantic. And, indeed, we have some very strong hurricanes, including Rita and Lee, on the American East Coastbut they’re not located in the central part of the belt (which means that the number of hurricanes along the Atlantic coast must be very, very low…) . Now, if you want to have strong storms in the region, you’re going to have to have a storm that has a large central pressure. If you have a hurricane that’s at the center of a strong current where there aren’t any strong winds and no storm-fighting storm operations underway, it’s almost certainly not going to form over the most intense part of the belt (the middle of the Atlantic). A hurricane that’s near the Gulf of Mexico is unlikely to form, as the high pressure areas around the northern islands and low in the tropics allow hurricanes to form around the Gulf and Caribbean. However, if a hurricane is near the center of a large circulation area, where there’s already a lot of activity going on, there’s a good chance that we might see it move into a strong circumpolar jet. Indeed we do: there are a couple of super-hurricanes that happened in the Gulf of Mexico when the jet was present in their circulation path. For example, Hurricane Katrina tore off a half million square miles (over 700,000 km2) of Louisiana in less than 72 hours. The hurricane also created the equivalent of about 0.2% of Louisiana’s landmass (or about 600,000 sq mi or 1 m2).

These examples, of course, aren’t the only examples. In fact there are so many examples to illustrate that I don’t think it’s possible to list them. But my point was that these hurricanes were not all spawned by the North Atlantic. There are two reasons this is the case. First, you have to look at specific regions of the North Atlantic, and the second reason is that in most regions of the North Atlantic, small-scale internal variability is stronger than regional pressure variability. As a result, the strong internal variability that is present in most regions is also strong enough to help a hurricane form.

So back to the story. What explains the Atlantic Multi-decadal Variability? The long-term changes seen across the Atlantic Ocean indicate a weakening of the circulation that originates about 40S of the equator and crosses the continent across North Africa. This means that the northern circulation is weaker and more numerous in the Atlantic today. Given the long-term trend, it’s not at all clear why it’s weaker this season. But there’s only limited correlation between oceanographic changes and the change in the North Atlantic Multi-decadal Variability. And there’s one crucial factor that determines an influence on the Multi-decadal Variability: the influence of the North Atlantic. Now, the current direction of the ocean currents that lead to these cycles may be affected by climatic conditions. Since the beginning of the 20th century, Europe has become drier than usual due to its climate change caused by human-caused carbon dioxide increases. These changes in the eastern Atlantic have been associated with the presence of colder water in the North Atlantic, a result of the reduced evaporation from the subsurface. Thus, when the Eastern European Current, or EEC, passes by the North Atlantic, there’s potential for an event in the central region of the North Atlantic (the middle of the Atlantic) where cold, colder water

“ We have no reason to think about our biological ancestors as the closest of ‘species’; to be as distinct as possible from our modern descendants. Yet our species is the most successful species in modern history. It makes no sense that we have not lived up to this promise. Our brain is a great example of a device that is too big, too complicated, and too specialized to survive for long periods of time…. Our ancestors, too, had to develop novel ways of seeing before we could adapt to the modern world.” (Caucasus, The Origins of Human Sociability: Theories and Methods of Archaeology, 2000, Vol. 2.)

“ “ We are in fact in deep evolutionary trouble; but the evolutionary consequences of such trouble are not clear…. What is clear is that the new science of human behavior shows us that we are not the descendants of Homo sapiens: and we must be the descendants of Neanderthals or some other species. … [There is] no way that human behavior would have evolved, so radically, without the influence of the evolution of Neanderthals…. Our ancestors were, at the edge of the African continent, already in contact with the various other species…. Since they were close enough to man to be intimately familiar with his actions and speech, and could have absorbed and used most of those words–our words–the ancestors of ourselves could have transmitted certain ideas to us. … Neanderthals were probably an extended family, sharing more than one name…. Our parents and grandparents may have borrowed many new words from Neanderthals–namely, tool-using. … Our ancestors would have made us tools–and, once they did, we would have used these tools to make other things. And, at this point, we are in deep trouble. We are doomed. In the process, one species replaced another…. Homo sapiens, whose ancestors were more primitive than Neanderthals, must find itself outside the circle of life. It would have to live in caves; where the only food they would have would be the leaves of trees…. Our best estimate is that Homo sapiens has a higher rate of intelligence than any other species. However, our intelligence is only part of our evolutionary potential. Our capacity for learning is only a small part. Our capacity for complex movement is an even smaller part. We are only just coming into the developmental stage of the capacity for knowledge or perception…. In part, of course, this makes for an interesting story. History is filled with attempts to solve some hard problems by applying a few of our psychological ideas to the new problems. It seems more than likely that, under certain circumstances, we would choose to solve problems differently. If the problems are in fact hard–as they’re claimed to be…. they are not the sort of problems that a child will have to solve; nor the sort that a child who is mature and intelligent will have to solve.” (Bennett 1998 and 2006: 22-23)

“ “ If we think of ourselves as evolutionary descendants, we have a choice: We can continue to view ourselves as the living product of evolution, with all the potential we have had to become something new and valuable and make an impact in a changing world, or we can start to feel sorry for ourselves, and see all our ancestors as we do. And if we can find something that is a better, or even a similar, way to live, we can do it…. Nowhere is this more true than in our attitudes about our own mortality. The notion that our lives deserve to end is a relic of our more primitive days. We only live to a ripe old age, and after that, as our years get shorter, we think that we’re gonna die. We want our life to be just long enough to finish all of our obligations. We think it is important that we should go out with a happy, full life…. … It is probably true, as Freud suggested, that people with higher levels of intelligence have an ability to imagine that they are destined to live a very long life… We have a tendency to imagine that we’ll always be alive. …If we think of ourselves as the inheritors of the same culture, with all the qualities that come with belonging to a particular social group, then it is reasonable to suspect that we too will begin to imagine that we have a life to last.” (Dennett, 2000: 6)

“ “ If we believe the idea of our own mortality is an important force that guides our behavior, then at heart we are in a culture that will not have any place for a person like us. To accept such a theory would mean recognizing that our values and our beliefs about the future have no basis in facts, that there are no stable rules that might give us any sense of direction for the future. To accept the idea would mean that there is nothing we can do to stop our culture from dying. For we want to find the way out of it, to find an alternative that will make us happy and successful. We want something that will make us

The galaxy is also home to numerous large supermassive black holes which are often just as big as our Sun. Here are six images of the black hole, which was discovered last October, showing a strong signature of radiation, about 50.7 billion times brighter than it should be given the distance to the central black hole.

The image shows how distant this object is from the centre of the Milky Way, and how massive it is. The source of the radiation is a jet of material from the galactic centre which has stretched out to fill this particular location. Other than that, nothing special happens but the image clearly shows that it cannot be there naturally. Here is another image of the black hole in space. When the source is too close (the red line), the glare of a foreground light source is too strong to be seen. When it is too far away (the blue line), such a shadow is produced, and we can see a jet of bright material streaming towards the black hole. The jets are produced by collisions of supermassive black holes in galaxy clusters. The image shows the position of the black hole, which can be seen in the bottom-left corner of the panel. It is located at 3.2 million light years from Earth. It is also about as far away as is possible given our limited solar system. Here is an additional image of the galaxy. It has been created using Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys. The light from this galaxy is coloured red, indicating it comes from the nearby galaxy NGC 1337. We see that NGC 1337 itself has a massive black hole which is also the most massive one known. The image can be seen here , but you should also turn on your low-light setting if possible before seeing the image.

Now for a view of the Milky Way galaxy in the night sky using the Hubble Space Telescope’s Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). The image above shows the Milky Way in full daylight as viewed by Hubble via the STIS Telescope in 2011. When looking away from the central black hole from the centre of the galaxy, the light is blue and the image has been corrected for the effect of the Earth’s atmosphere by reducing the brightness of an observer’s eye. The image shows the location of the central black hole from which a jet stream of material is moving towards the galaxy – similar to how the jets are produced by collisions of supermassive black holes in clusters. While that is the case, it is clearly not the case for the black hole because it is situated so far off the central black hole’s star. The black hole is just one of over 2 billion such objects in the centre of the Milky Way galaxy. The star is located just inside the circle for the Milky Way galaxy. Here is one of the images of the Milky Way galaxy from Hubble in 2012. The red line shows the position of the black hole. The yellow line shows the location of the stars in the galaxy, and where you can see the Earth and the Milky Way. The image is shown in colour here.

Back in the day, before we can look forward to another galaxy, we need to understand the nature of our own galaxy. The image below was made using Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 2 to map the stars in the centre of the Milky Way galaxy. Unlike its neighboring galaxies, the Milky Way is full of clouds of galaxies. The image shows the positions of each of these many clouds. It is important to note that we see clouds in that part of the galaxy because galaxies are moving away from their parent and forming a group, and those are moving towards an observer’s location. However, it is possible to look inside the galaxies and see what the individual stars are doing about that separation. So in the image above, the brightest stars are shown from the dust-loaded central regions towards that observer, all the way out to the edge of the dust cloud and so on. The dust clouds are made up of galaxies that are young and are colliding together to form new galaxies. These collisions are creating the bright and white star-light, because the most massive and energetic of these events are not seen by us as they are far from us due to the massive distortion of space that the galaxies undergo as they are torn apart. As the galaxies interact with each other, there’s a lot of dust and gas from the collision that we can see from here, but because of their size and their fast motions we cannot see much below us.

Back in the day, before we could ever see this image, here is another view showing the position of the black hole. Although the centre of the galaxy is very distant from the observer (around 300,000 light years) it, together with every other galaxy, is extremely luminous. The image shows the brightness of the centre of the galaxy, as captured by Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys Survey in 2010. This is the centre of the Galaxy, surrounded by the entire galaxy. There are thousands more galaxies

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