science

The rover’s landing was delayed several days and it never made it to the moon. It wasn’t until 1999, after a long quest, that a new lander’s orbit took it at a safe distance from the surface and sent it directly into the lunar shadow. This is where the tale of the Martian Lunar Explorer begins.

How did the Mars Lander get past the lunar shadow? A bit of a different route actually. When NASA’s Mercury lander left the surface in November 1962, it took a much much further path around the Earth. A Mars Lander took a slightly different route. Instead of continuing to the moon, it would continue to the sun. It would then take multiple orbits around the sun.

NASA’s Mars Polar Lander was launched on November 2, 1984. (Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech) That made it possible for more than one Earth-bound Mars Lander –the Mars Exploration Rover (MIR) – to be in full operational mode prior to reaching the moon. At Mars time, the sun was rising at 4:16 UT, a little more than an hour quicker than our own sunrise time. That made tracking an orbit for the MIR very difficult. It was the beginning of the MIR’s long and difficult years in orbit around the Sun, one of the longest such orbits for any launch vehicle ever to fly.

The orbit of MIR. Image credit: NASA/MSFC/MSSS

In 2000, NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter went by Mars in 2004. It landed only an hour later on August 6, 2009. The orbit of MIR did a more than 50-minute loop around the sun and didn’t make it all the way around the planet, like NASA’s Lander did.

The orbit of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Image credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute

In May 2009, NASA’s Mars Express reached Mars in July. The orbit it took to get here was much shorter than that of the Mercury Lander in 1962, just a mere 28 days. It continued making further loops around the Sun and would eventually land in July 2021. It passed only halfway through its prime orbit, completing its mission on December 15, 2012.

I mean, it’s not like anyone has to be in a deep sea city to deal with it right? I have a feeling that this is a good move to not go down this road.

The bottom of the barrel is going to be the people who need it the least…so I would guess that this is where everyone in this situation is going to start to fall behind and start to think there might not be anything to the argument or not much to it…but I think that the people who are in front of the problem are going to keep throwing their hands up and not accept anything until they have something to offer in their own way to put things to rights. That’s just my hope.

One thing I have seen so far in this whole story is that it is never-ending. It never ends unless someone offers tangible benefit to the problem it is addressing and we just can’t wait until someone gives us what we want or until the majority of the world is moved to change the way we do things. So it seems that the first piece to be added will be more and more of that change…and the second will be the acceptance of the situation to the masses, so that change can happen.

What do you think? Comment below and join the discussion!

His explanation for the statement? “Because it’s a local party.” For those of you who think, “you didn’t have him on your show or in your list of contributors”, he actually donated 1,000.

“I was in the same room as people shouting ‘Labour Against the Rocket, get him out of there!’”

This doesn’t make much sense at all, but of course he did. The party he stood in? The Labour’s Regional Council. At the time he was on the local party list for Labour at the regional council a young member I’d worked for in another city said, “you’re in the council, you can’t call yourself a local. He didn’t talk to the local party about this”. So what did he propose to do? “He should stand down and have a job in government.” “I know…how did he do it?” “He took money from the other party to pay his expenses.” What a laugh.

“As if I have to answer that.”

“We’re in this together.”

“He’s a stupid man.”

It’s just as well this episode wasn’t aired in my local press, because it would have been a waste of time.

“The ‘Labour-versus-Rockefeller’ thing is still very much in, in fact it’s spreading because of the other news.”.

“Oh…so I shouldn’t be talking about that then?” Perhaps…but how about this?

I wasn’t asked a question about the ‘rocks’ but I did get an hour with the man himself…

Now that’s what I call “coached”.

It is not easy to capture the detail of an interplanetary comet, and even harder to detect such a close-in object as 2I/Borisov. But this comet was finally spotted by the Gemini South telescope to our south with the help of Hubble.

The two of us are lucky enough to be a few hundred miles from the comet, with the visible edge of its tail poking out. We have been listening for the faint tail emission over 20 hours, recording a spectrum of the light in an infrared spectrum, which we can then compare to a photo of the comet and its solar panels (above). We are also using our new instrument in the Gemini South telescope to see how the spacecraft does in its measurement of light scattered out of it as it passes through its atmosphere. If you look closely you can see a strange ‘pink’ colour shift in the image. It is the result of the comet’s magnetic fields colliding very, very quickly.

I have previously discussed how the Comet 2I/Borisov formed during the first minutes of the solar system’s formation; it is a giant and complicated comet that has been changing its shape with its interaction with the Sun at a dramatic rate. Since the sun and the comet orbit the same galaxy, the two are basically ‘linking up’. This means that the sun is taking the most of the solar system through the inner solar system and the comet is absorbing the rest of the solar system, while the sun is driving the comet away from the Sun and further away from the rest of the solar system. One way for the comet to find new territory is by generating ‘camel bumps’ on the side of the solar system. Some comet orbits have seen spectacular carvings of these bumps - such as the ‘C-ring’ of 3H/Purchasing in 2015 that was photographed by the Hubble Space telescope. In 2011, it was discovered that 2I/Borisov was in a cyclic close orbit to its sun, and this caused huge fluctuations in its rotation and brightness that has been observed in the satellite’s orbit. Some scientists think that this is because 2I/Borisov is in a different region in the Sun’s ‘core’ than other comets. We suspect that this may be the case of 2I/Borisov as well, where there are multiple suns.

2I/Borisov has a very elliptical orbit around the sun, which can only take it so fast. Because the comet is so close to the Sun, we need to image it at a close range if we are to see any details at all. The comet was only visible on the face of the Sun for 15 minutes. The sun was only about to light the comet at that time, and the comet was too far away to have seen a reflection of the solar surface in the visible part of the sky. However, we are now seeing the tails and light bands that make up the comet’s tail over the next few hours and days. These images should help us to understand how the comet behaves when it falls into the sun, where other comets are expected to do the same.

I hope that all of you who read this blog know what to expect of it. In the interest of full disclosure, I have some of what I believe is the most impressive high-resolution images of the comet. I have taken these images to prove that these images could also be easily reproduced. The first is for the comet’s position at the Sun about the time of its last perihelion, which happened on 12th August 2015 at 20:07 UTC, which is a little under a day after 1st January 2016 at 17:48 UTC (the last of the solar-system years). Each image, after its transformation, is approximately one degree on each side of the comet, so they will form a smooth surface when viewed at the different wavelengths. The comet’s tail extends some 2,700 km out into the Solar System. This is enough time to make a nice mosaic of the Sun’s surface, which is of no real interest here, but for comparison this mosaic is one day shorter than the last time we saw the comet (20:50 UTC on 14th January).

As you can see, the tail is really wide and elongated when seen at its maximum. There are actually three distinct bright ‘windows’ on the lobe, which are in different sizes and have different lengths. The light has spread out into different directions, and it is more difficult to see the tail when seen in the different wavelengths. It was also seen a little bit before the Sun, but it is difficult to picture from the Gemini South telescope.

2I/Borisov was very close to the Sun, and it also came in at a time when the Sun

One of the ways in that transition is that the mission has moved far beyond the basic goals of developing a nuclear-powered satellite.. It has shifted from producing a system capable of delivering radio-signal to an intelligent system capable of controlling the payload.. As a result, the requirements for the Orion spacecraft that will carry it have changed. What this means is that a small spacecraft with this spacecraft system system’s payload is really large, as demonstrated by the Orion that will carry a 6 foot CubeSat. While the Orion was designed to deliver a small payload to lowEarth orbit, the craft can be used on its own to deliver more payloads.. So, it isn’t just that we are getting bigger and more powerful, but that we are getting more autonomous..

In fact, the ability of the humans involved in these programs to control their systems is getting better and better.

In the last few years, NASA has focused on developing a series of “pulsed ion thrusters”.. These PIRTS will deliver the power needed to send humans into deep space and will provide thrusters that operate in flight or after arrival at the moon. NASA has also launched a lot of experiments to test how the technology will respond to Earth’s environment. In particular, they studied how to use the technology in a way that uses less propellant.

However, the concept of a PIRTS still seems to be mostly theoretical at this point. NASA has not yet had a spacecraft with the capability to use pulsed thrusters.. And what they have is an unmanned moon lander that was originally designed to launch off of a Russian launch vehicle.. The problem is that to use the solar sail system with a solar wind is to use some kind of “space rocket” which has the characteristic of being unable to control its acceleration.. To reduce the amount of propellant needed for those launches, NASA has also considered a rocket thruster.. A potential solution to the “light weight” problem would be to use space-station (or spacecraft) thrusters, which are cheaper. This is also where NASA has had mixed success. From an engineering point of view, they haven’t yet got a propulsion system that will be able to support “lightweight” micro-scale space flight..

For the first stage of the Vostok 5 Lunar Module and the first stage of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer, the Russian agencies were able to launch them with less-than-ideal performance. The Vostok was launched as a satellite to monitor the environment and dust. The Lunar Module was launched as a spacecraft to test lunar module systems. But because we are getting better and better at manufacturing micro-scale spacecraft, this problem has become a non-problems. The problem is that in order to build a vehicle that is capable of supporting a large payload, the engineers need to get this much more right than was done in the 1960s and 1970s..

On the one hand, NASA is trying to produce bigger and faster vehicles. On the other hand, the problems they have in the mid-20th century and the problems they have now are becoming non-problems.. With the exception of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer and the first mission of the SLS, everything from the PIRTS and SLS engines to the space station is smaller and more efficient in a small platform space. To get more efficient, they need to design the payloads that can handle these higher speeds and bigger payloads using technologies that are now available. Which means all of this technology will only be available within the next 10 years (or so).

So, it is very likely that NASA will have to change (or at least develop a different mission for) the space station and the space booster that are currently the primary ways that the US military is engaging in space activity..

Overall, there are some big changes going on at NASA, but these are not a major departure from the past. They are more like what happened in the 1960s and 1970s, when NASA tried to change its mission, in order to solve some problems or achieve some goals. NASA actually achieved some of these goals. For example, during the late 1960s, NASA was beginning to use a new low-cost spaceflight vehicle, with a solar-wind concept – a solar-sail technology. In the 1980s, with development from the 1960s (though under different leadership than the scientists at NASA), NASA and the United States built the first spacecraft capable of using solar-wind as propulsion. This is still in the prototype stage. It seems possible that the space station, but not the space booster, could be the first satellite of the future. But there is no need to change the mission of the space station. When it comes to the Shuttle

How can a very cold gas giant be so compact and yet have the same mass as the sun? I have seen people suggest that massive stars will merge. Some of the largest stellar black hole mergers ever have occurred when a star has been hit by a much larger black hole. This was the case with NGC 4955. The original star was around 200 light years away, not 500. Larger than the sun, but still only 100,000 times more massive. That is a great coincidence, and one that a lot of people have missed.

Anyway, it wasn’t until 2012 that one of these guys came together. He formed a singularity, about ten times the size of the sun, with the heat coming from the surrounding stars. It was super dense and super hot. In fact, the inner part of the singularity is so hot that it consumes hydrogen that is currently passing through, and vaporizes it into a form that is now reaching the outer edges. I have made a chart showing the properties of this region that seems to indicate how massive it is today:

The inner part was not as dense as the outer part, so the star has a lot of leftover mass and a lot less atmosphere. The interior seems to be a lot more dense than the outer regions, as the two regions actually have the same density, but it is not visible in the graph. So, at some point, either the black hole was not very massive because it is smaller, or the star was too small for the new black hole to form a massive enough singularity, before being captured to the other end.

As the stars migrate away from the binary, the inner part becomes increasingly hot and dense. It stays hot and dense for millions and billions of years. In this stage, if you can imagine a giant version of the ocean at the bottom of a very intense deep-sea trench, then this is what we are seeing. It moves down the trench like rock being pushed down from above, and as it gets to the bottom of the trench, it cools but only reaches a surface temperature of about 1500 K. Even though the temperature is cool as a rock, it has a lot of friction and would rapidly collapse, so when it becomes to the surface, it rapidly cools as well. This is the only way a star can become quite as hot as it is today, while it is still at the outer regions.

The new black hole, however, is even denser than the inner part. It is over 4000 times the mass of our sun. The surface temperature is around 1200 K. The entire area of this black hole is moving at 20,000 mph! At some point, this new black hole could have collapsed into all of the other stars, and the process was almost over.

There is still a matter of seconds before the gas giant had enough to form another star. It would have had to pass through this new black hole to the other side in less than half a second. If the gas giant moved fast enough, it could still hit the black hole and keep moving like the rock on top of the trench. This is very, very impressive. Imagine the rock smashing through a concrete wall at 30 mph. That is what you are going to get if you go through a black hole in a matter of seconds if this black hole is moving fast enough.

The new black hole could be much much, much bigger than LB1. If it were a hundred times the mass of the sun, then the hole should have some amount of disk around it that was pulled in by it and the gas giant. Either way, the disk is probably expanding, which is good, as this new black hole is sucking in more matter. This gas giant’s mass will need to be significantly less than its own to allow this to happen.

It doesn’t seem like a bad thing for the black hole to die. It is certainly not very hot or dense, so this is a way for it to pass away after it consumes much less mass. The black hole’s surface is made of very thick hydrogen gas in the inner part. It could be a lot more dense than the outer part of the hole, but is so close to the black hole, at this point, that I can’t really see any reason to think it would be less dense. This one is very close to dying, so in many ways it’s a good thing for LB1, because it ensures it doesn’t pass too far away from the black hole to create a new black hole larger than LB1. But the process does not end with a gas giant that is getting sucked away. It can continue on, becoming a red supergiant black hole that can contain a huge solar mass

And then you wonder what you have to do to make your side happy. But they haven’t given you a reason to want to do some sort of damage control. Or even to ask for help in getting their side to be satisfied with this. The best they can do is to talk about something besides Branson. I assume they want him to do it or there would be at least some reason, and they don’t. But that doesn’t help the rocket at all. And so I think we’d better get together and try to come to some agreement . Because, frankly, it’s pretty obvious we are not going to be able to get this thing back running. The company’s problems started years ago, with the collapse of a large contract with Lockheed from which they get most of their funding and continued through to now with no sign of any sort of improvement for years after contract termination. It’s been in trouble for so long they couldn’t get the deal back. The only way forward was to keep them solvent for now by increasing their losses for the rest of the decade. And that’s hard to do. That’s why the first solution to the rocket is pretty obvious: go private and figure something out whether it’s a rocket company, a mining company, or a food producer. Then have them outsource the rest to whoever is willing to pay a little extra and make them work.

(click on image for larger version) That’s what the folks in Texas are doing. I also think they’re doing it right. They are investing heavily in a research and development facility. Because they want to be the ones that make the big breakthroughs not the ULA contractually bound to support them. (And if it doesn’t come from them, there isn’t much point in doing it). But they are also the ones setting the research and development goals and the way in which you spend your money, and they can bring that innovation back in a good way even if the rocket isn’t really doing it if they can find and invest in a solid partner that has the capabilities to make the rocket very good and profitable if it’s meant to be. So if we would just be nice and start bringing back the innovations from a long time gone, why did we have to go to war? Well that’s an answer I’m quite sure they are a little embarrassed by. And, for all you people who think this is really the only problem with NASA we’ve had, be patient. What I like so much about the proposal is it is proposing to make NASA a public organisation. The idea is to start a virtuous cycle of competition, so we have to come up with our own competitive proposals, which are also good. There is a reason both Mars exploration and the X Prize have gone public as separate entities. In most industries, if you create the right product or service, it’s then marketable by anybody. But sometimes you have to do that in a very carefully managed way to get it approved by the board of directors of the company so it can be sold. I believe at one point the ULA board tried to put them out of business by saying the rockets they developed had been too expensive. But that’s a mistake. We wanted public funding to go to Mars before anyone did as well as they did. And it’s the best way to avoid the problem we are having with the government and the contractors with our new space program (and we’ve got more than enough problems in the private enterprise space to go along with it). So with that in mind, we think that what we should propose in my proposal is a partnership. Not an outright joint venture, but a partnership in the sense that we are going to work with the companies NASA has got to get money out of. It would be a big collaboration between the private sector, industry and the government. And there is another idea. We believe that both Mars exploration and the X Prize have good prospects for a public outcome, particularly after we’ve completed our exploratory missions. The Mars Opportunity rover is off its job; the X PRIZE is still in the early stages of construction and the Mars Science Laboratory is due to have its first flight later this year. Both of those are missions made by companies with substantial private funding, and we are concerned about the possibility of the government running the competition. So we propose to put that on a temporary temporary footing, so that after both studies are complete we can then decide what direction to go with our public venture.

(click on image for larger version) We think there are five factors that make that the better option, and one of them is the idea of a publicly-owned X PRIZE:

First, it’s all-volunteer. There’s no government to look after

Currently available methods rely on biopsies to demonstrate results within the first few days. The method developed by Dr. Li is much less invasive. The method he has invented involves a biopsy of the patient’s cells while at rest. This will provide much better clinical information at the earliest stages, rather than the time associated with biopsies. The technique will allow for the simultaneous administration of multiple therapy protocols to a patient, while avoiding the traditional use of one drug for four different diseases.

When an immunotherapeutic approach has been demonstrated, we start looking for the optimal protocol that avoids harmful side effects. This is where we begin examining the target, the mechanism of action, and possible safety and side effects. The researchers first chose this method from one that offers better long-term results than stem cell transplantation. The original method consists of inserting a stem cell into the body as a bone marrow stem cell. This stem cell receives a growth factor (in this case immune globulin) and then attaches itself to the immune cells and secrete its own immune reaction. The stem cell then migrates to other cells to expand. The original stem cells typically fail to spread in the body to other parts. The biopsied cells are not growing properly, they are not being injected to other tissues, and they contain little growth factor. The original stem cells were not as responsive to chemotherapy.

The new method in Li et al. allows for the simultaneous administration of multiple agents to the body. It does so without destroying the stem colony, so the immune cells are not being exposed to foreign agents. The immune cells will react to the new agents in such a way to prevent the cells from spreading out of their new environment. Once a stem cell is injected to the body, the original stem cell then migrates to other tissues. The researchers will begin with small animal models before expanding into a larger animal based on the animal’s response. The current model would be a mouse.

The study was performed by Dr. Xiaolong Liu, a researcher with the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

The technology they are working on is not only being adopted by NASA but by other government agencies. So NASA is using a new medium to communicate with the public. A space community. With a different concept of communication.

A space community

As the public sees themselves as part of the future, they take a different approach to communication. What we call a space community or an interplay community is a communications medium for NASA which allows for an integrated, multi-channel dialogue, from the ground up. Our current communication, is “in the loop” with the rest of the world. The media is all part of a giant loop. As a result, a loop of communications between NASA and the rest of the world will be established. NASA will no longer be a solitary entity in our world. The communication will now be a community. A unique collaboration between NASA and the rest of the world. This community will be the next generation of space and communication technology.

I saw a recent book recently by Dr. Tapan Misra. In it he has stated that a digital version to the communication can be developed. What can be done with the new technology isn’t really being discussed by anybody or discussed even at NASA. The only discussion we are ever given is in relation to using the technology for other people’s satellites and space operations. But now we will have the technology at our fingertips, and will be able to communicate, to the world, at a far higher level than what we previously had. The technology already exists and it allows for a communication to go around the planet. A worldwide, high tech, digital communications channel.

As it turns out, SpaceX is now in the process of using a revolutionary new type of energy storage device that provides enough power to run the space station for four months. I am talking about the energy used when the solar panels are at their lowest.

SpaceX uses energy from a series of solar panels that covers a space vehicle. These panels are the heart of the Falcon-9 rocket, and help power the rocket’s four engines. While the sun is shining during a run, these panels can be up to 60% efficient at producing electricity. So far, SpaceX has spent $1.7 billion to acquire the solar technology that makes the panels a reality. Since this investment, the company has released two major updates, one that made it possible to capture energy from sunlight, and another that improved the energy density of the panels. As you can see, the efficiency of these panels is up to 70% for solar power in general, and it is even higher in the solar power space vehicle.

The improvements in the efficiency of the solar panels were spurred by a series of new laws passed by the California legislature in 2008 that require government power plants to reduce their output of power by 20% by 2013. If the changes were to be fully realized by the time the end of the year came, the state would have saved approximately $60 million by then. I guess I don’t need to explain why this is awesome. So far in the state, the new laws have produced a 1.5-times decrease in CO2 emissions and a 20-to-30% decrease in mercury emissions. When I look at the environmental effects of a 1.5-times decrease in CO2 emissions and a 20-30% reduction in mercury emissions, I have a hard time justifying putting my finger on what is most important in both areas! It is simply amazing to me that the state of California can do such a good job of reducing pollution when all the state is required to do to cut back pollution is to increase carbon emissions! In addition to the new rules approved by the Los Angeles Public Health Department in 2008, the state government has also been putting pressure on the private sector to make sure that new regulations put in place now, will work on a state and national level, as the old ones have not.

Although it is an estimated that by 2012 there will be 70 million cars on the road in this country, according to a report by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, it has been suggested that by 2005, it will not exist a single car.

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