science

The sun has lost all of its radiants due to the presence ofcarbon monoxide in the space surrounding its rings. The study also found sulfur in the magnetic field of Saturn’s gas giants, which it concluded were an early sign it was forming. The new finding gives the planet’s rings the “sine wave” look. This latest view of the sun and its planets is provided by NASA’s Cassini spacecraft and the Spitzer Space Telescope. It is the first time that scientists have photographed Saturn’s rings from above. NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope captures the view by combining multiple exposures taken in 2011 and 2012. Image: Cassini, NASA [high-resolution] Caption: NASA

Tatooine Nights: The first of three planned Batttle Nights events for 2015, The City of Lights and a dozen other organizations are going to run free night time performances across the city! It’s Batttle Nights, but I can think of bigger, better events for my city with more to do! You can catch the Batttle Nights 2015 performances, and all the other fun and entertainment the city of lights has to offer! See you there at the event, May 19th/20th 2015 at 6:00pm! (Don’t forget to sign up for the newsletter for updates on the night’s performances.)The first one is at West End Park , just up the street in the south of downtown, from 12:00-1:00pm. The second is the Empire State Building , from midnight-1:00. Come and see! (There is something for everyone!)The third is the Metro Center at 10:00pm, from 10:00-11:00, and the 4th floor of Metro Center at 10:30pm-11:00pm (It’s more of an epicenter of arts & entertainment, and it’s all free.) And the 4th floor of Metro Center at 11:00-11:30, is the free performance of Elmo the Musical, in their own little band, under the guidance of our resident rockstar, Mr. George O’Hare as he presents his all-original rock show, Elmo’s Rockin’ Reel!Get your tickets early, for free!But don’t wait until I get all the details from my team that night. Let folks know their favorite and least favorite Batttle Nights events, and/or any other events in your area, in the comments below. I’ll be updating you on what’s going on!

Nights of Lights and the City of Lights Free on Mondays and Tuesdays as part of a three-year celebration of the Star Wars and Disney Film Nights programs, which start tonight with the first one! Also a fundraiser for the United Way, The City of Lights is hosting an entire Night of Lights on Tuesday, June 19 at 7:00pm at the Elks Lodge, on Grand Avenue near 8th Street. We’ll have the stars, the dancers, the musical and all the other cool stuff. The free nightly performances at the Elks Lodge start with The Star Wars/Fandango Special in our lobby, followed by The Magic of Walt Disney and Star Wars . (Details from The City of Lights, [email protected]);

City of Lights in 2015 The City of Lights is hosting Star Wars Night on Sundays through Thursdays from dusk till dawn. With free parking all night, it’s a wonderful chance to show your support for the City of Lights. Starting April 30th, the City of Lights is hosting a Star Wars Night in Downtown Phoenix courtesy of the Arizona History Channel. The programming includes films ranging from the original films to the new ones, talk shows and panel discussions showcasing the Star Wars legacy, live music from local bands and artists, trivia, and free rides, games and vendor booths! The event is hosted at the Phoenix Art Museum from 4 7 p.m. Sunday through Thursday in the lobby at the Phoenix Art Museum (3320 E. Central Ave.) with the new Star Wars movie on film and in the main exhibition gallery. This is a great opportunity for many to meet the artist in person and see what he/she has been up to and talk to the Star Wars folks. At the Phoenix Art Museum, the Star Wars show is a free, all-ages event. (Details from the City of Lights, [email protected]). The City of Lights is also hosting Star Wars Night every Thursday through Sunday from dusk till sun-up in Downtown Phoenix since March 23, 2015, with one free show at our lobby. At this free event from 5 to 7 p.m. people of all ages can enjoy Star Wars themed music, play light sabers, meet the artists, or take part in fun activities. More details from the City of Lights, [email protected]

The results of a new study on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) research on people from eastern and western Africa suggest that our origins are more complex than previously believed. Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, studied the mtDNA of 60 individuals in an effort to find out the actual genetic history of a group that split from modern human ancestors more than 870-871,000 years ago. Their results, published in PLOS ONE, have been welcomed as “groundbreaking” and “game-changing.” The scientists uncovered a pattern which may indicate that modern human and Neanderthal mtDNA lines diverged at one point, followed by the development of the modern human lineage that has become the dominant variety on the planet, but a second line diverged for another 400,000 years. The researchers hypothesize that by comparing the sequence of these two lines, it’s possible to connect the two populations’ distinct origins and learn more about our evolution.

Morton’s Cave in the Altai Mountains, Siberia. What’s more, the scientists have discovered that the first human from that time zone to interbreed with Neanderthals, in the period about 400,000 years ago, is not the same person as those who later interbred with Neanderthals in that part of the world.

These two findings may suggest that the process of developing the modern human lineage out of the Neanderthal-human branch may have been more complicated. The modern human ancestry that was then spread by modern humans into the rest of the world seems to have been largely inherited by Neanderthals, and not by modern humans.

More from the newswire: What’s the Difference Between “Modern Humans” and “Norman Rock Culture?”

The scientists discovered that the mtDNA of modern humans from eastern and western Africa are genetically diverse enough to distinguish them from one another, but are distinct enough that they can’t all be Neanderthals . Instead, the scientists’ estimate that the two populations split with little divergence (the one-arm to two-arm split) is more likely an artifact of the process of genetic drift. Drift is the process by which changes in a population, caused by mutations that have occurred since a population arrived, spread throughout that group’s gene pool.

It’s easy to see why these kinds of results may lead to a belief that the ancient “homo sapiens” (now just Homo sapiens) were somehow related to Neanderthals. The idea that ancient humans interbred with Neanderthals and didn’t develop distinct species on their own is based on the fact that modern human and Neanderthal mtDNA diverged at a point in time similar to the point in human evolution where the two separate groups separated. However, the researchers also revealed that interbreeding was not limited to modern humans, as Neanderthals still interacted with modern humans.

At least, that’s what the research suggests. The researchers found that people who lived in the eastern half of Africa more than 400,000 years ago had a mixture of both Neanderthal and modern human mtDNA. These people are known as Denisovans, and the scientists suggest that they may actually be ancient cousins of modern humans, living in the same region, perhaps even in the same groups.

The researchers also studied the mtDNA of people from North and East Africa, North Africa and Siberia. In contrast to the eastern Africans, the north Africans (including the people from present-day Tanzania) were genetically distinct enough to distinguish them from both Neanderthals and modern humans.

The genetic patterns of the people from north and east Africa may indicate that the two populations began interbreeding around 800,000 years ago, and continued so through the last interbreeding event of humans, between 700,000 and 250,000 at the latest. This has led some scientists to speculate that a large migration of modern humans out of Africa could very well have occurred, while a slow migration into Eurasia may have continued to happen.

It would also suggest that the human groups were more interbred than previously presumed, and more likely to interbreed than the more recent studies suggest.

The study’s finding, first reported at the ENCODE conference (the end of 2012) and since confirmed by an accompanying article published in Nature (February 2013) by David Reich, a geneticist at Harvard University, was supported by two other German groups – a research team led by Maria-Kristina Herndt of the Sonderfaden Institute in Braunschweig, and the Mitochondrial ENCODE consortium. Here’s an excerpt from the Nature article: In the new analysis, a common and long-lived mitochondrial gene, known as mtDNA H18N, shows clear signal of ancient admixture. It splits off separately from the H12 (an ancient mitochondrial haplotype, found in Europe and the Americas but absent in Africa) gene branch during the time of the ancestors of modern humans. This shows that it arose in the region around the

Here are a few of mine:

I know, it’s too much, that I needed to set limits on how often I could show up to the gym, and I felt strongly that everyone could find ways to exercise if they so wanted. This may seem like a bit of a low-ball, but I felt that the goal of many programs wasn’t reaching out, but rather creating the illusion of being able to. In my opinion, no amount of training would take away from what’s called the “magnetizing effect,” or the feeling of getting stronger and faster, that comes from exercising regularly. That’s one benefit that I’ve found of weight training: the fact that you develop your mobility over a longer period of time will show itself in your speed. Your muscles will become bigger and stronger all through training, from before you ever even set foot out on the gym floor to after… and it shows.

What about the other benefits of weight training? You will work out your entire body, in addition to your core, and be able to perform some great lunges, squats, and deadlifts. You will burn calories.

What isn’t shown in the above images is the weight lifting muscles in the back and thighs which I like to refer to as biceps. Those muscles are really not as strong as those in the front and chest. The biceps are the strongest muscle in the body, so it’s a natural move to focus on them when training. This is a great way to build great biceps just like I had already done on my thighs with the biceps-forearm curl. When you’re done with the back exercises, I do two sets of four. I like to make sure I’m completely rested after I finish, but you can rest anywhere between five and thirty seconds between sets.

Is there something missing in the weight training that can be a key to your success? In the days when I was a bodybuilder, I used to workout every bodybuilding-related event (fitness, bikini and fitness contests) and workout all over the country. I know first-hand the struggles that it can be to come up with a solid training plan and be able to be flexible enough to do everything. I can see why many beginner or new trainers would recommend going into the gym after 4 pm, but it doesn’t make me feel like I have some of my own training in me (nor would I recommend it to inexperienced people). Here’s what I did in my own training for a few months. I ate what I’d had in the preceding three months. I lifted weights the day I’d need to be on the treadmill. I didn’t move much at all. I did only 2-4 rounds of squats, and only once every two weeks for 20 minutes, after all exercises I’d already completed on my past workout. These workouts were easy, but didn’t really teach me anything. And most importantly, I was feeling worse than I would during all the previous strength and conditioning programs. The best thing I did to improve all of this was train by myself! In fact, I did this for almost a year and a half, and over that period of time that I worked out alone, I saw a marked difference in my ability to lift. I began to see that I could lift more weight, and lift it harder, more often, and I had the confidence that I could keep that increase in strength going long after I’d done the other program on the internet for months. These results proved that there was a method to my insanity. And while I don’t recommend doing yourself any harm by trying to do things on your own, training with a local trainer, where you will be getting the feedback that you’re able to train harder and longer, can be very beneficial. If you like, you might decide to go on and put your own programs together on the computer, for yourself. They will be the right fit for your goals.

If it’s something you think you’d like to try during a few weeks of time, I recommend trying at least two or three of these. If the exercise is challenging, whether for one day or two days, then pick one out at a time. Otherwise, stick with the one that you would feel most comfortable with. Here’s what you should do: 1. First a few steps to building muscle. 2. One day and two days. If you have the confidence to do enough of this training then you’ll have no problem building muscle in one of these. 3. Keep in mind that this is just a temporary plan to build up your strength. If you’re a beginner, maybe it will be just enough. It’s also important that you keep enough progress on this and stay consistent

The results were as follows:

TheStonehenge (Gore Hole)is the most ancient monument in the United Kingdom. It’s been built in the Gwynedd and Penarth areas in Wales since the 9th century AD. From the first excavations it was clear that the construction of this giant structure was very unusual. Unlike most other monuments, there is no built-in ornaments or decoration found on the Stonehenge. There are no wooden floors, no foundations, no drainage, no fireplaces or pottery. There are however three large pit vaults that have been cut into the ground (one at the bottom of the north and one on each side of the south). It’s estimated that within these vaults lies some 4 to 5 million years worth of natural stone formations. However, the structures of the large pit vaults seem to be a product of the construction of this monument (rather than a result ofearthquakes orhuman activity). The Stonehenge is also the most famous monument in history. It’s currently protected by a fence and has been visited by famous people from around the world. However, the vast majority of visitors are not archaeologists. Instead, they spend their time looking at monumentslikethe ‘Troll’s Walk’, the ‘Glacier Folly’, the ‘The Stonehenge Cross’ etc.

Since the monument was built thousands of years ago, most of the surface of its stones has been disturbed by human activity (water, earthquakes, erosion ). The fact is, Stonehenge is a great example of natural, semi-volcanic landscape forming. If you leave out the volcanoes and you get a landscape just like Stonehenge today, most would probably agree it would be one of the most perfect natural landscapes in the world! It’s possible that many aspects that we take for granted about Stonehenge would even be different around the time of it’s construction. As for the stone formation of the Gwynedd and Cornish area, it appears to be some of the oldest known natural formations ever recorded. The same can be said of the surrounding area, but it turns out that the area has been subject to a lot of mining activity over the past few decades!

The above are some recent archaeological finds which could be significant during the construction of the construction site. Here’s some of the archaeological remains of the construction site in the first few weeks after the site was declared a National Heritage Site:

At least one of these is believed to have been a man. The other remains are all animal bones/artifacts. Note that a few of these were in very good condition for a site of this size, however, I suspect a few were found in an even better condition! As you can see there is no attempt either by the archaeologists or anyone else to create evidence of human activity. This would be very much in line with the interpretation made when the site was first considered a National Heritage Site. This would also be a very important point that would be of interest to historians working on the construction of Stonehenge.

What happened to the builders of Stonehenge?

Stonehenge is an interesting relic to many people and no doubt not everyone is sure what took place in the construction of the monument over the past 1000 years, for example some experts think it could have been a natural or quasi-natural structure!

Why should anyone be? Did Stonehenge build itself? Or was it built by a greater being? There area number of possible explanations for the events recorded in the story of Stonehenge, including a combination of elements from a range of possible sources: natural/terrestrially engineered rock formation, natural rock formation, human activity using stones at the time, or even that it was the last ‘natural’ stone formation remaining on the planet. It is likely that any of these possibilities were involved.

The questions raised by the Stonehenge project and the archaeological discoveries at around the world has been fascinating. Perhaps in a few years’ time the research will be finished and an authoritative summary of what took place at Stonehenge can be published. All the knowledge gained over the years since the monument was built will be of great use. Hopefully we, as a species, can learn from our knowledge of this very ancient place!

It isthe most spiritually and mentally nourishing time of the year. When you awaken during the night in the middle of the harvest moon (you are not the first one to do so) you usually find yourselffeeling the deepest spiritual and mental joy. It’s a time for reconnecting with the universe and your soul is truly released. You may begin to feel a surge of energy as it releases you from the physical body, all sense of time and the past has passed away. What you start to feel is a renewed and vibrant awareness of your energy, life and destiny. If you practice a little self-awareness you will feel in control of your life, a sense that your power comes from within. There may also be a spiritual aspect involved and it is very helpful to hold a candle to light a fire within you if you feel it. The harvest moon is often a good time for reading a poetry book (check out The Harvest Moon ) or practicing a sacred massage or dance. If this is a special occasion it is very important to share it with your friends so they can find something to remember and share with their loved ones as well. Everyone will experience different things in the harvest. As Mother Earth prepares herself from the harvest of her soul, we prepare ourselves from the harvest of our body. The first week of the lunar new year is all about preparing your soul to become a new being. It may also be a good time to gather some ingredients for your healing. The time to prepare for the harvest moon is when we find ourselves most ready, the time to come together for a ritual feast, to make plans on how we are going to be a better person. Your harvest moon is your time to celebrate and bond over your deepest connections. Think of it’s harvest moon as your birthstone and become it as you start your next sacred ritual. The harvest moon is also a time to feel liberated so don’t be shy. Use your energy now and let it flow through you and the earth to be as pure as you can during this powerful journey. The Harvest Moon is the time to start your healing and cleansing process as it helps release excess energy. This is a time to reconnect with the Earth, the source of all life, and release some of your most difficult past sins.

The Harvest Moon marks a major spiritual awakening . It is a time to start your spiritual and healing journey towards your final destiny as an awakened and fully human being. As a result, we often feel a desire to cleanse ourselves from our ‘bad’ acts and negative emotions, we are ready to go on a path to becoming more sensitive and open. In most astrology readings, the beginning of the harvest calendar symbolises the first day of the new month. The first full moon of the month represents the first full moon of the new harvest year. If you are reading an horoscope, you may see the crop coming up on the second full moon of the new month. If you are reading a time line, the harvest moon usually seems to be a full moon in February when the new moon is just getting started. The first three weeks are a time of great growth and energy. Start here if you have not taken part since your last ritual because the harvest moon is generally a very energetic time to start your path to becoming a complete being.

The harvest moon can be used in rituals to assist you in reconnecting with people and with the Earth. It can serve in rituals for healing, or to let you be a part of a ritual to remember the Harvest. It can bring you into sacred spaces, release excess energy from yourself and the world, and help you to become more peaceful. The power of the Harvest Moon is to connect with humanity again. This is the moment we are all meant to create our spiritual communities.

With our harvest moon time approaching, lets get ready to connect with the earth together for a ceremony of healing & growth. We are starting the journey of creating a space where you can truly be with nature - living together in harmony. Before you perform a ritual, it’s a good idea to look to see if it is going well by attending a meeting of your local ritual group. There will usually be two or three members that can be helpful for your ritual. You are not always going to share all your information with the whole group, if you want to do a sacred action that requires personal input, there are ways around this. If you are asking to be a part of a ritual, the Ritual Coordinator has the right to ask everyone else to leave. Do not give out too much info. Just ask your friends and family around you if you want to join. When you have been asked to participate

I will be ordering this once I see it in other stores. Thanks!

5 out of 5 stars Amy I am really liking my new GORUCK Superlight. Well worth the price and the product as well because I do a lot of hiking.

5 out of 5 stars Jennifer I am extremely pleased with my GORUCK Superlight. I used it for a day on my feet this past weekend and it really protected my feet and calves pretty well. It felt just right on the skin, even in the heat of the day. I highly recommend anyone who has any concerns about sunburns look no further than the GORUCK Superlight.

5 out of 5 stars Sharon I am so happy I bought a new GORUCK Superlight. I have been playing hockey for several years and I have been trying to protect myself at all costs so that my feet don’t get burned. I would be very careful when wearing these and I would recommend only walking outdoors when it’s about 30 degrees with shorts and a hat. I don’t even wear socks these days and I’m so glad I discovered this GORUCK product. This product is incredibly light and so lightweight. Most nights when I was at the end of the rink, I was pretty much unnoticeable.

5 out of 5 stars Julie I have been a GORUCK reader for over 10 years. My son was using a GORUCK Backcountry vest and was worried about getting sunburn on it at the pool. My son said it got just as warm as hiking, so after getting my hands on this, I can finally see why it is becoming an all-purpose outfit all winter. I put it on and felt absolutely warm even in 25 degree weather and it has held up so far. I really don’t care if the weather is raining. I use these with my GORUCK backpack when I’m at the beach and you know, I couldn’t ask for anything better. The design is incredible and the ability to adjust the straps of the vest, if needed, is fantastic too. I am very pleased with everything I own from GORUCK and would highly recommend this product! Thank you!

4 out of 5 stars Tricia I bought this back in March 2013 and have been keeping a close watch for the weather and keeping a clean room and water supply for my sleeping system. I like how it fits snug and doesn’t drag on your back, which has saved me a lot of time when hiking, scrambling, camping and other things. I have found the GORUCK Superlight to last me for 2 - 4 months, depending on how much I use them. I love the way the vest is constructed. But when the weather is not great, I was worried that the vest would not be able to absorb the moisture in my skin, so I am going to have to be more careful on the hike or on the trail. But after a few days and hikes, the Superlight is holding up nicely, and it is nice to have something that absorbs moisture so I know i’m getting good ventilation, etc. For about 8 months I was using a different brand of vest, and I had some skin irritation issues (some were as bad as an insect bite). But using the Superlight, I saw no signs of any problem. I keep a couple of ziplock bags for water and food, my camera and my keys. It’s a good idea to keep a few layers of clothing you want to use when the weather is not good.

5 out of 5 stars Kimberly I live in New York and recently had surgery due to a broken hip and knee. So I’m a little down to go hiking and camping. I already knew GORUCK SUPPLY was a great product because the price and material are much better than any other climbing shoes I have used, so I bought the Superlight. I decided to buy from GORUCK a few months ago because I heard so much support from other hikers like myself. I really love everything about my Superlight! I love that I get to use my new GORUCK SUPPLY on both hiking and backpacking trips. I’m so glad I did and I hope I can continue to enjoy myself.

4 out of 5 stars Kathy This vest is great in just two categories for me (summing up the overall experience) - comfort and value. I would have bought two of these to fill me a little more with warmth, but I love my previous GORUCKs enough to keep them around as a backup.

5 out of 5 stars Jody I purchased and used the GORUCK Superlight the other day in the blistering heat of Washington State! I can barely walk for a few yards of my new trek, my skin got extremely irritated. I looked on web sites for another GORUCK vest that would be thicker. I wanted it to carry a lot of water and water with it to prevent blisters. This GORUCK vest was perfect for my use. I walked 8 miles

The panel includes a few new members as well as a handful of people previously members of the IPCC and the IPCC Working Group III. In my opinion they really make this an opportunity to finally take the next step and get this project on track towards its conclusion. They make recommendations on how best to fund the project and are very encouraging of the work being done on this subject. They are at least giving public a chance to weigh in on the next stages for this exciting new project.

In January of this year the IPCC released its Fifth Assessment Report, “climate change and its impacts: A comprehensive assessment of the science”. This has received almost universal praise, even from people who didn’t give Climategate much attention (so good for them!) In this report, the panel of experts state that the evidence is increasing that man-made emissions of carbon dioxide are transforming the global climate system in a way which is now being felt by human societies and which is altering the Earth’s ecosystems for the worse. And therein lies the central challenge of this report: how does such evidence be taken further and applied to address the specific challenges we are experiencing today? The IPCC report makes it clear that “climate change is already affecting the environment and human health, and, despite great efforts, our ability to mitigate this impact is limited by limited time, resources and political will”. The report makes it clear that “the impacts of climate change will continue for centuries to come and that this human performance change is also likely to occur in other parts of the world and in areas of high wildlife sensitivity.”

And here’s the news today that the new IPCC report will be released in just four weeks! It’s hard to believe, but what a difference four weeks can make. I am certain that this report will have an impact that is hard for many, many people to grasp, but that it will also be remembered (and used) as another opportunity to try to work out what we should be doing now. So many people are doing this, it is only fitting that an IPCC panel has a four week review to catch up with the many changes in the evidence and make sure that we are still on the right track towards a sustainable future. What is the IPCC Doing Now?

The IPCC released their First Assessment Report in 2006 and the Second Assessment Report last year, and again in 2013 . This time they really took no prisoners and threw everything they had at this report: they spent about $100 million in R&D over the course of eight years to test thousands of hypotheses and assess the accuracy of the many different scientific methods employed in the report (the IPCC calls them “the methods”). And what did they find?

Well let me show you what they found right off the bat. In the first two chapters of the report the IPCC says this: What I am interested in exploring is the consequences of the climate change caused by industrial emissions of carbon dioxide, including the effects on biodiversity, terrestrial ecosystems, climate change, sea level rise, and many other impacts.

Over the last decade there has been a steady increase in the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the Earth’s atmosphere. Over the last 100 years, the rate of atmospheric-level increase was about 0.025 percent per year. In the 1990s the rate was about 0.17 percent per year. This rapid increase in carbon dioxide concentrations is known as the climate change signal.

Over the recent past, the rate of atmospheric-level warming has been roughly 0.45 to 0.73C per century. The temperature change has varied over time across the globe, with the greatest increases in the Antarctic and Arctic, and the lowest trends in the tropics and sub-Antarctic Oceans. Each of these changes is attributed to anthropogenic CO 2 emissions (that is, by burning fossil fuels to generate electricity). As noted below, all these results are in line with the observational evidence that has been accumulating over many years (it is hard to get a data point in the middle of the last century, but it is common for CO 2 levels to rise by about one or two percent per year).

What the IPCC didn’t mention in these two first chapters (it wasn’t needed, the chapter titles are quite self-explanatory) is that the rate of change is accelerating. The IPCC report uses the definition of “climate” used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and applies it to a much broader range of global change with very little reference to the individual nations and weather systems that are responsible for it (we are all part of a big bigger global storm that is responsible for most all the increase we’re seeing in temperatures.) The IPCC used the same “sea level rise” and “polar change” categories of the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report which is due shortly for release during 2015.

In the most recent IPCC assessment report (AR5) a much broader range of natural

Now I’m going to take one of the most expensive beers, my Oskar Blues Tangerine Sour, and transform it back to it’s old glory. I do take a small amount of time to clean it at this point, just in hopes of preserving the character of the beer. Before I start, I need to use my trusty immersion chinois, the Tuna Canister to add the beer to the hot water bath. While I wait for the temperature to come to a rolling boil, I’ll rinse out my coffee filters (after removing all the leaves, so they can be reused ) and the bottom and head.

I also have to do a quick and dirty wort injection procedure during the wort injection stage so that I can be sure that the fermentation temperature is just right. Some folks also like to hop out the hops in the brewhouse during this stage, but I have found that this really dilutes the hop flavor so much that I wish to avoid it entirely. Since my coffee filter was full, I opted to get creative and instead used my coffee and water filters to soak up some of the excess wort. I’ll also use a small amount ofKelp Meal of course during thewort injection. This will allow me to hop into this stage of the brew as low as I possibly can without dilution. Now for the wort injection and somefinishing touches. I have to clean and rinse themoldsout of the carboy at this point in the process. Since the molds are still warm and stillfreshfrom curing, the wort injection actually helps clean some of these molds even more. I clean the sides of the Carboy with aPVC Dry Cleaner and the bottoms of the Carboy with a good foam rag, then I use theKelp Meal to pour it into theCarboyand place themoldsinto a cleanoven bag.

TheBottled O/S now looks like this.

While I’m waiting for myfinishing touches, I’ll do some final adjustments to thewortfor maximum efficiency if needed to reduce alcohol. For this beer, I’ve decided to add about 1% more hopsto be consistent with the hop bill in the bottle. I’m going to use myOaksGourmet WLP001 (5.8 Galaxy) at 30 minute mashout andF-09 at 60 minute rest. In order to keep thequalityof the final beer as similar to the original, I’ll be doing minimal post fermentation tweaks.

I’ll be doing the following:

Flat Tapping/Extract/No-Flavored Wort: I’ll be using aFlat Tap to tap in the full mashout, and I’m going to make sure to get about a 1-gallon of wort before pouring it back into theCarboy. Wort is still flowing all the way up to the top of my Fermentor. (Note, I’m also going to use aFermentorinstead of the Carboy for the remaining wort, as I prefer to put more wort in/out of theCarboyinstead of letting it sit too long,since then I find it tends to lose the flavor too much and get toosoggy. I’m going to be using a Flat Tap duringthepost-mashout for all myextracted beer).

Post-Mashout (Flat Tap): Now, as the wort cools to ~95F, I’ll be placing the WLP001 and my beer into anextractedFermentor. I’ll also have placed theOaksGourmet WLP001into anextractedFermentor. The reason I plan on using an extractor instead of a fermentation chamber is that because the mash is being run continuously at the hot temperature of 105F/42.5C, we know that fermentation has already taken hold and the beer will be producing carbon dioxide and ethanol. On the other hand, if you decide to use yourFermentorduringthepost-mashout , you’ll have to drain the mash and leave it to sitfor a fullday before you can get a good measure of wort out. On my first batch, I was thinking about just doing a post-malted grain mash and dumping all theextractinto the Fermentor, but since I had a second batch still fermenting to complete, I did a secondpost-maltedgrain mash and dumped the extract into the

It marks the beginning of a new cycle. It’s also the beginning of the year. The first light of Winter is coming soon, bringing with it a plethora of change and chaos. This is why it’s often referred to as the first Winter. Not all seasons end in June, or even August, but by early Summer or early Fall there is a change to be made to the seasonal cycles. What we often fail to consider, is that this change is still just around the corner. One problem is that many people aren’t prepared to recognize it. Many simply see Fall as a brief phase while the next growing season progresses, and we go about our lives as if nothing had actually changed. In many cases, we don’t realize what’s coming up next.

This is actually one of my more personal issues, but I have a little girl that is only two years old. I’ve been waiting several months for her to stop crying about spring and summer, and to recognize that we could be in for an even more challenging season when the first crop is ready.

Winter should also be seen as the beginning of a new cycle of harvest, as winter doesn’t generally last forever. Winter is not like spring, where we’re just standing around hoping the plants grow all the way to a ripe harvest…we’re actually harvesting before we get there. Winter brings many changes and problems, which we all know must change as the season progresses.

This brings us to the question of when to start looking to the following summer crop and start planning harvest. Remember, the cycle of what we’re getting and harvesting in the following year doesn’t change all at once, but it typically progresses as the previous season progresses, and continues onward until it’s time to stop. That said, you should be looking to harvest in the following January or February for most crops, and May or June for some.

If you’re worried that your spring or summer crop won’t arrive the summer harvest, you have a few options. First you need to plan ahead for your harvest year.

If you’re not worried that your harvest won’t come, but are still looking to be prepared, you also need to give yourself time. Don’t plan on getting a year in before harvesting, you’ll miss the first round of planting. Your best bet is to make sure you get the spring and early summer crops in before this cycle is over, and then work the rest of the fall and winter in with the crop you have.

If you’re not worried that your first crop won’t arrive, but are still looking for some sort of plan, you won’t have much time, but you have plenty of opportunities. Plant your first crop early enough so it’ll be ready to harvest in December or January, as many of our vegetables won’t need time for flowering. You could also plant the initial planting a month earlier than the usual, so that the plant can grow as long as it needs to. If neither of those options sound appealing to you, the next best thing will probably be to use it as a guide.

Be patient. Most crops will come about, and may need a few years of attention to make them mature, but that’s why harvesting just begins. Once we start harvesting, we don’t stop. The cycle won’t continue, with crops like onions or peppers. Once you do start harvesting, you know the crop is ready. It’s just a matter of when you’re starting to harvest, and not where you’re starting.

Most of the time I just harvest in late Spring and early Summer, if possible. For winter crops, I tend to focus on fall, or at least early Autumn. Some other folks do the opposite, and start early in the season. Either way, make sure that there’s time for the first harvest to get planted before the middle of November. The next best option is a separate planting, perhaps after the plant’s root system is fully developed, instead of starting with the root. The reason I usually let my first harvest be planted a month, rather than the full year, is because by the time the first plant is ready to harvestwell, let’s just say that people tend to like to wait.

Some people don’t want to wait. For me, all things considered, waiting to start planting a new crop brings more worries than benefits. The first step is to make sure that everything is ready before starting. Another reason to wait is simply to get all of the winter problems worked out, and to get used to the new process. The most common problems are frost and thawing, and the second and third most common is the problem of root rot. The roots of the first crop will get full of rotten

This study showed that the presence of black holes at the centre of spiral galaxy disks is relatively common around galaxies where the central bulges and stars have more dense material, such as Milky Way.

Image credit: NASA Hubble Space Telescope / Alan Stonebraker The formation of the central bulge in our Milky Way is part of the pattern that creates the nebula. This was shown by the existence of ‘spiral orbits’ around the bright points on the spiral:

Image credit: NASA, ESA, A. Feild (Univ. California, Berkeley), G. Bacon (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces) and A. Koekemoer (Univ. of Hawaii) This new study shows that the presence of clusters with a dense central bulge is often seen at larger than expected distances and more closely spaced stars. This is in line with the recent results that the supermassive black hole at the centre of our galaxy may be a mass of some 50 million to 80 million times. These results are further confirmation of the long term correlation between the mass of spiral galaxies between the presence of black holes at the centre. This was shown by the existence of ‘spiral orbits’ around the bright points on the spiral:

Image credit: NASA, ESA, A. Feild (Univ. California, Berkeley), G. Bacon (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces) and A. Koekemoer (Univ. of Hawaii) The new study is interesting as it shows not only that black holes at the centre of spiral galaxies are common in spiral galaxies, but also shows that they can be present much more widespread than previously thought: a galactic centre on the scale of the Milky Way is a million times denser than the most dense centre on Earth: this means that the black holes at the centre of our galaxy are over 10,000 times more dense than at the centre of Earth, which is a million times more concentrated: this means that black holes are very common in dense globular clusters. Black hole masses may also help to explain where the black hole is located in the centre of the Milky Way Galaxy. However, our Universe is very massive, and a black hole in the centre of Milky Way must be a huge amount. While this is exciting, it does not explain all of the events of the Universe. The black hole could be in a nearby galaxy, or in the center of our own galaxy. A mass of 10 to 20 times the Sun in the galactic center may be even larger than that of a massive black hole. It seems like it would be a very interesting story to follow, and one that deserves to be investigated with more precision than it has been thus far. I think there are going to be more results like this, to come from future observations. In fact, I believe that the next time we look at the center of the Milky Way, we will already be able to see the center of a supermassive black hole near the centre of the galaxy - an event that will be very interesting to explore. With the new discovery from the European Southern Observatory, we have a few more observations of our Milky Way and some of its surrounding galaxy that will make it even more interesting! Update November 2009. See: Milky Way Black Holes - Do they make galaxies? by Dr. Kari Nnrinde (a) MESO News, February 2009; (b) A paper is appearing in arXiv: 10.1088/2041-8205/084/1/L04 The Milky Way appears to exhibit a huge amount of binary stars. I have no explanation for this, other than to say that we are seeing an interesting set of observations that we should be able to learn more about with the new space telescope.

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