science

a few more words need be taken into account of the role that testosterone is supposed to play, in terms of the way our bodies use testosterone. In contrast to the testosterone that men can produce from the ovaries, testosterone produced by the testes is made from precursors found in the pituitary gland. Since it is a different, male body form, one cannot use the term testes to describe the male body of such testosterone produced by the testes and not the male body form of testosterone produced by the ovary. So testicles could also be considered male, yet not testes. And this could be explained if in addition to the effects of testosterone, our bodies do many other things to improve our well being.

The male body produces a substance called sex hormones by converting a group of amino acids into these hormone based substances depending on the presence of the proper ligands (steroids) present in the body. This process for building a male body shape results in an overall build that looks like that and is generally described as having a rounded, muscular profile like a boxer, as well as short, strong legs, body-like arms, a flat neck and a wide face that can look more like that if a male version of a man’s face looked like a male’s (male-looking) mouth rather than a woman’s (female-looking) mouth. I should note that I have a problem when I hear people on the street refer to male bodies as “male-looking” or “female-looking.” That is one of a whole lot of meanings the term “male” carries. If you take anything (especially someones eyes) that is not seen as “male” on the street and put a thin tube like mask over them, it is a sign a person is not that person at all, but a person and is therefore most unlikely to know that he is or was that person, or is a person who is. I can easily see how this could be seen as “male.” The way people see faces, especially the female side of the face, is more akin to what you’d see in a “cute girl with big tits” or a “cute boy with black eyes.” So, if anyone has any difficulty understanding what I like to call a female-looking body, I would suggest you have an understanding of what I love to call a “beautiful” bod. So, if you were to have the face of either one of these men, it would most likely have something like the figure above. Male testosterone, on the other hand, is made by the liver in response to androgens, or androgenic chemicals such as testosterone, which are produced by the adrenal glands (female) and the testes (male). The body is able to produce “extra” testosterone by using the “female” or “male” form of “testosterone” to synthesize its own “male” or “female” chemicals that are found in that body shape. In males, testosterone is made primarily from the ovary and the testes (and the fat tissue of the fat-bearing organs) and testosterone produced by the intestines. In females, it is made primarily from the ovary and the testes and testosterone produced from the breast tissue of the fat-bearing organs (female).

In most females, breast tissue is the major source of estrogen, the reproductive hormone, that is synthesized from the female adrenal glands and the fat tissue of the fat-bearing organs (female). The fat tissue of the breast is a source of estrogen as well and all the fatty tissue has enough estrogen (estrogen dependent) to enhance breast development and breast development is also an essential characteristic of a male body. The fat of the male breast develops from several tissue types, including the fat from the scrotum and the scrotum from the prostate. Of course, the fat you get from breasts doesn’t do much for your body shape. They are a bit of a pain and need special exercises to improve body shape. In males they do much the same thing but, at least in comparison to females, they do an even better job. Thus, male levels of testosterone are almost entirely derived from androgenic chemicals produced by the adrenal glands and those hormones are found in very small amounts in muscle tissue of the legs (and, particularly with heavy weight-bearing, lower leg muscle due to the higher fat content there). This difference is particularly interesting because the presence of extra androgens in male muscle is apparently more effective for increasing endurance strength of the type needed to compete at high distances than what is found in the females. So, if you see a man who has more body fat and looks like a woman with a slightly lower body fat percentage and is more like a female with a slightly higher body fat share, it’s not entirely because of his higher total testosterone but a source of extra androgen.

Most testosterone-producing proteins have amino acids encoded on their surface, or “face” portion. This means that

The first huge eruption occurred between 5,500 and 3,500 years ago. This had a seismic intensity as much as 18 on the Richter scale and was caused by a volcanic activity that is known to have caused high velocity waves up to 25 km/h (15 miles per second). The super-eruption of 5,500 years ago produced a huge release of gas into the stratosphere, raising the temperatures above 1000 degrees C and causing a thermal pulse between about 1800 and 2060 J/kg (200 and 50 mJ/kg at sea level) and producing global warming with a magnitude of 13 on the Richter scale.

The second huge eruption occurred during the last Ice Age. The seismic energy for this event was higher than 17 on the Richter scale. According to paleoclimatologists some of the gases released by this event may have influenced the Earth’s climate by altering the earth’s radiation balance. As a result a global cooling and warming event may have taken place between 5,000 and 3,000 years ago. However, much work has been done comparing previous records of the earth’s climate to newer records by modern paleoclimatologists. The results of this new study suggest that the super-eruption may have been minor but it clearly influenced the climate at the end of the Last Ice Age.

Source :Myrkonikos et al . (2015). The Last Ice Age: An eruption-induced cooling in the tropics of the Northern Hemisphere (Eocene in-situ-climate change record and reconstructions from the Northern Great Lakes to the Antarctic). Palaeoclimatology, 115, 613 626. doi: 10.1007/s00731-015-3574-9

Dr. Andrew L. Rassbach

First, Saturn’s rings are not entirely a natural phenomenon; each one of the rings has been formed after an impact with a rocky body (like one of Saturn’s moons) which, in turn, has left a ring-giant remnant. But the size and shape of the moon’s rings are actually a result of the moon’s orbit and the gravity of its moon. It is also interesting to note that on the very end of Saturn’s orbit, it is completely flat. On this very flat part of space, there are mountains that only appear after the moon has passed the plane of its orbit. They are the result of a different gravitational pull than the rings. In a similar way, on Saturn’s moons Io and Enceladus, the gravitational field makes it almost impossible for Io to form rings.

(From the side) The rings around Io appear to be a perfect spiral.

(From the side) All six of Saturn’s moons have bright rings. The largest ring, in turn, is about twice the diameter of the moon that makes it. From the side, Saturn’s rings appear to be a perfect oval:

From a distance, it can easily be forgotten that these Saturn’s rings are almost completely unnatural creations. This is because a moons’ gravity (and hence ring-giant remnant), is so strong that it can’t take the ring out of the orbits of the moons (if a ring were ever to come back.)

On the other hand, if you were to venture close enough to the moons, you’d notice those rings appear like the ‘spider’s web’ that you get in the sky during sunset from your back at your house. If you wanted to escape from the web with a full moon, you’d then be surprised at what you’d find on the horizon. On the opposite end of the scale, the rings around Saturn are almost certainly much smaller than seen from the moon’s surface, because you might be able to see them from the ground.

Note that on Saturn, there was a time when it was thought that Saturn was surrounded by a huge sphere of gas and ice. This image shows an old picture of Saturn taken by Galileo.

The image showed an extremely bright ring system around Saturn.

Since the rings were nearly invisible, the theory of their existence was put on hold and they were named after the Greek deities with similar names. However, the rings are now well confirmed as a natural result of the moons. In fact, the rings are a feature of Saturn’s internal structure, not an outside created effect. I can’t help but wonder why it is that we don’t have a map of the rings on the internet that shows us the size of the rings, shape, composition and all the other fascinating information that they reveal as well. Perhaps, eventually, we will get a map of Saturn’s rings. A map of the rings from NASA. The most amazing aspect of all this is that the rings aren’t in any way permanent. If you get off that far you will see them disappear as the moon orbits the planet. And if you continue to get off for too long, you can see them reappear somewhere else. And if that is one of the moons of Saturn, then the rings appear even more amazing. But for now, I’m going to leave this post here. Enjoy Saturn, and enjoy its rings.

I wouldn’t say I enjoyed them as a kid, or anything though.. they sucked!

Phew!

Now the question is who’s gonna fix and maintain them?? The answer is I, I’m gonna do it, and I want to do it by myself.

I bought a spare claw and I’ve been working on improving my mechanics with it. I’ve got 2 different claw types that I can use, one type is a claw that does claw attacks and the other is a claw that will let me use hand to hand at the same time. So I have a few claw ideas right off the bat. A claw that can make “Hand to Hand Attacks” is one I definitely want to try out. Also a claw that lets me do an “Axe Weapon” attack is another one I haven’t really tried out yet, but I think I could do it.

I also had a moment of inspiration and decided I should try out the dagger. This claw would be a great weapon to have in my arsenal too.

With my claws in hand my project looks like this.

Hopefully it’s enough to get me to get over to the website and start working on it..

I’d really appreciate some feedback, comments, ideas, suggestions, etc.

For the first time ever, astronomers have identified molecular oxygen in a galaxy outside the Milky Way, Markarian 231, which contains 100 times as much oxygen as our own galaxy..

Image Courtesy

In the search for a molecular oxygen cloud, astronomers first looked to see if they could spot a cluster of stars which held a gas cloud. They were unable to make contact with any molecular oxygen.

On a different hunt, a radio survey was launched to observe an extragalactic region where the molecular oxygen cloud appeared to be gravitationally bound to the galaxy in one or more intergalactic regions. Results from these observations suggested a molecular oxygen cloud, but only at a relatively small fraction (less than about 3%) of the distance between our Milky Way and this galaxy.

In March of 2012, a team of astronomers were now able to observe a molecular oxygen cloud which had been gravitationally bound when they launched the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE. This latest study found almost 10 times as much oxygen as before and the galaxy showed no signs of binding to any nearby molecular clouds.

Bottom line: WISE observations of a molecular of O 2 in the galactic core, the galactic core, showed it to be 10 times more oxygen than before. [Read more] [See a PDF of this article Here

You can go buy one right now.

If you’re coming to this book, I don’t know much about you, but I’m glad you’re reading it. If I could live without you, I would.

This is a first person book, using my own words the characters and all of that cool stuff and trying to capture the emotions I felt upon finishing the book. That’s really the only job for a book like this, and it’s difficult enough to do.

My friend said that reading this book was the hardest thing for her to read in a very long time, and this is by no means the only time the two of us have fallen in love with a book. It’s almost difficult to put into words, but if you’ve ever wanted to feel the feeling of reading a story like this but at the same time being angry because the book didn’t work for you, you might be ready for this for the first time. If you’re like me, it’s hard to give a great review of a book because one person I love doesn’t want to talk to me, but I felt I owed it to myself to try.

This book will have been on my short list of books to read over the next 8-10 years. Not sure about you, but I think I’d be interested in a real life story of survival that also manages to be set anywhere. Maybe it will take me over 200 years to have my own book. Until then, it’s another book to pick up and read.

In the 1960’s and 1970’s they discovered a fossil skull, in which they estimated that it lived 66 million years ago! In 1979, they found a second bone of the same dinosaur in Arizona. While trying to decipher the fossilized remains, they realized the skull is not the same as the skull previously found in Utah.

The Dinosaur Skull in Utah:

And as an aside, it seems that the dinosaurs known as “Paleozoic”, “Middle Jurassic”, and “Cretaceous” dinosaurs were all on the plains some 66 million years ago! This dinosaur skull will certainly be a fun find for paleontologists, who will have spent thousands of hours to decipher all of the fossil remains.

Tyrannosaurus Rex from the Utah Dinosaurs Project

As a personal thing, I love dinosaurs. I have an assortment of different specimens that I own, including the first Tyrannosaur bones I found on eBay, and I have a couple dinosaurs I brought back from my expedition with me. Now I’m not quite sure if the fossils I own are dinosaurs or birds, but I’m certainly grateful to the folks at the Utah Paleontology Center for getting me a couple things for free. Even though I probably shouldn’t, my mind is forever occupied with the idea of finding a Tyrannosaurus Rex somewhere. If anyone would like to hear my musings on dinosaurs, check out the links below.

I started this blog by posting photos of the dinosaurs I found from the book Dinosaurs Of Utah by Ron Kagan, along with the actual text. For a lot of information about dinosaurs, especially more detailed information on some of my favorite kinds of dinosaurs, check out the book The Lost World of Cretaceous and Jurassic Dinosaurs by David Evans, which is set to be published by Orbit Books in the summer of 2016, and the movie based on the book.

All original photos by Dave Stinnett

Update:

I’ve updated the post in light of the publication of the book Cretaceous and Jurassic Dinosaurs , and the release of a DVD that contains the entire movie. Now there are some dinosaurs I had originally placed into the Jurassic branch as of the end of the Cretaceous. I’ve also removed more dinosaurs from that branch and placed them in a new branch known as the Maastrichtian - Maastrichtien group. I will update this post as and when I find further details for the dinosaur lineages from all of this material published in books, so keep checking back to this post for updates, or check out Dinosaur Movie News: Jurassic Park 2 (2009) is now available!

The model, described in the May 1st issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, predicts an increase in the global number of phytoplankton between the year 2050 and 2060, including a rise up to 2% annually as ocean ecosystems evolve to compensate for projected declines in surface plankton . The model’s findings are important because they are based on a simulation that predicts a global population increase of 1,150,000 metric tons the equivalent of 10 million metric tons of seafood annually in the first decade of the period of global change. This is an increase nearly 10 times the number projected in our current projections for 2050 (which are based on more stable growth rates). In the model’s current form, this phytoplankton increase is likely to happen even faster in the future.

The study shows that ocean systems are not immune to climate change. As shown below, the model predicts changes in surface nutrient levels due to atmospheric carbon dioxide. In the long run, phytoplankton will take over the biomass of the food web, resulting in a decline in ecosystem biodiversity. At the same time, the model also suggests that phytoplankton can be compensated for a decline in a different planktonic food source, known as benthic foraminifera; the new model indicates that this is possible. As the phytoplankton biomass grows, the model’s simulated ocean nutrients gradually increase, while the nutrient-rich surface waters increase their carbonate burden. As shown in the graph above, phytoplankton have higher relative abundance and more carbonate capacity than the marine foraminifera, causing them, in theory, to take over the ocean. An imbalance on the ocean’s carbon cycle has already been revealed, and suggests some of the key factors causing imbalance are altered oxygen patterns, temperature and oxygen uptake.

The model used on the study shows that oceans, with their intricate and complex mechanisms for regulating benthic foraminifera, could be targeted by ocean producers. If a high concentration of organic material is carried to the bottom of the ocean, anaerobic processes degrade the organic matter. The ocean, with its intricate and complex mechanisms for regulating benthic foraminifera, could be targeted by ocean producers. One of the key factors affecting oceanic foraminifers’ interactions with the ocean as a whole (and phytoplankton especially) is the amount of phytoplankton. In a typical low-latitude ocean, the phytoplankton biomass tends to grow as the temperature increases, with a range of maximum to minimum values. A similar range for the ocean’s phytoplankton will increase in the future as changes in temperature and availability of nutrients increases. The model’s simulation of growth in the ocean biomass follows a similar pattern; the lowest productivity occurs after a decrease in the phytoplankton biomass; after a change in these two factors, the phytoplankton biomass slows but not substantially, until the phytoplankton biomass is sufficient. In a large-scale environment, carbon dioxide, which affects the phytoplankton, could also be a factor affecting growth. The oceanic foraminifera could be highly exposed to carbon dioxide due to changes in the ocean’s respiration rate. If the increased uptake of CO2 was large enough, it would further cause the ocean to lose its ability to function in an aqueous state.

To see an animation of the current, simulated sea level, and the changes in the Earth system, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/spaceimages/details.php?id=PIA18386

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This work was supported by funding from the National Science Foundation and the UCI Ocean Institute and the UCI Department of Earth and Life Sciences. Further information on this work is available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.190795711

The National Academy of Sciences is dedicated to the discovery, collection, analysis and dissemination of scientific information on biological issues. The Academy is a private, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scientists operating under simple principles. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it, at a minimum, to present a national appearance of sound mind and free from material interest. In keeping with this noble aspiration, the Academy has developed a detailed and comprehensive set of guidelines that it shares with other peer-reviewed scientific academies. These guidelines require that Academy members be scientifically literate, maintain appropriate level of professional discipline, and adhere to basic principles of sound science.

The Academy is a private, nonprofit organization and relies on the support of its members for its operations. Please visit http://www.nap.edu/

So far, the disease has only affected six people on Earth so far, though that could increase soon. Scientists are getting ready to get ready for the next big pandemic. The CDC estimates that the current number could reach 7 million by 2025, which would increase the number of cases by 400 percent.

If you know someone who’s sick, please get them to an emergency room. People shouldn’t wait until the weather is bad (it was a good weather day at NASA yesterday) for an opportunity to get checked out. And they should stay home when they’re sick as well.

And remember, we need to be prepared for this pandemic. We need to get an estimate of how many influenza deaths have been traced to this season, and to how many of those deaths were related to the weather.

Scientists are also working on monitoring the impacts of seasonal flu and the impacts of Zika. For the time being, we can’t avoid the idea of a future climate where there would be a lot more severe weather events, and people could get sick after a few months of a tropical or stormy season.

These new materials have the potential to revolutionize advanced LED technology, including for outdoor displays, automotive lighting, wearable displays, LEDs and in home lighting. They could also serve as the basis for new blue-based LEDs.

The semiconductor, which is produced by splitting halide perovskite crystals, provides a promising means to make LED products. Current LED technologies are based on semiconductors of different materials. The best known LED is the Cree XP-G2. This light emitter has the maximum color gamut (color range) available in a light emitter (100 or 600 nm), but is limited by its output power (brightness) as well as its energy footprint. The most popular LEDs today use mercury plated phosphors to produce luminescence (light production). These light emitting diodes (LED) are not blue in color. They just turn blue based on the light they emit. Other blue-based LEDs are not available. One limitation of these light emitting diodes is their output power. While they could be used to illuminate or change lighting conditions in a home, these diodes simply cannot directly provide sufficient power to overcome the power demands of an LED bulb.

The UC Berkeley team has developed a new type of LED called halide perovskite that is produced via the direct coupling of two halide atoms in a boron fluoride (Bf) compound. Bf, a semiconductor, is an extremely common compound in many semiconductor materials. The process to produce halide perovskite is as simple as replacing one of the halides with boron. Halide or boron crystals in a compound are the best performing materials. Boron fluoride is readily available and cheap, which makes it an attractive source for synthesis. One of the main drawbacks of perovskite-based light emitting diode is the short lifetime of the material, but the UC Berkeley researchers have developed an elegant way around the issue by exploiting two unique characteristics of halide perovskite.

First, the team used the boron fluoride (Bf) compound to bind to a halide atom (in this case halide perovskite, also known as bismuth borate) in halide perovskite. In this way, the light emitting source could be coupled with the halide perovskite. Since both the emission and output power of halide perovskite is very low, the output power of the LED can be made significantly larger with very low cost. The material is also extremely sensitive to how far it is embedded in material, and other materials can interfere with its emitted light.

The use of boron fluoride (Bf) compounds in LEDs is becoming popular again, because of its unique properties. For example, because bismuth borate is the best light emitting material in the world (as long as you use high purity halide perovskite, which is expensive to make and is usually produced in extremely high purity boron fluoride), boron fluoride appears to be the perfect compound for LEDs (it absorbs blue light easily, and provides the best performance for light emitters of all colors). These properties (among many) make it an ideal candidate for LED applications.

The second unique property of halide perovskite is that it can be made either at room temperature or at 10 degrees C. The UC Berkeley team found that their new halide perovskite could produce a temperature effect at room temperature if they used the bismuth perovskite (Bf) compound as the source of boron. If the boron fluoride were used, the output power of the material would also be affected when it was heated as it would make the material produce less luminescence. This heat dependent process was a new feature of this new material, and was not previously possible.

The production of halide perovskite offers many important advantages, and it will be interesting to see if Halide Perovskite can be employed in products and in many different applications.

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