health

It does not have to have a large spread to harm some people. The human to human spread makes it more contagious than the individual will notice. Individuals can spread the disease to other individuals, even if there is no one around to see and pass on the disease. This means that anyone who has the disease is at risk for getting it. This also means people who get the disease can be at risk of passing it on to their own children. In the US, the most likely culprit to have contracting the disease is that your family or friends are infected: they are likely to infect you as well by sharing food, water or towels with someone who has the disease. When an infected person has the disease, the body will try to eliminate any other virus in its body that it might have. This is what causes the disease to leave the area and make its way to any person that passes on it. This can range from only a few days to an entire year. The longer the disease remains around an affected area the more likely you are to become infected as well…

Whooping cough is a disease that is spread by not coughing on and around people who are infected or have other respiratory ailments. It also spreads without coughing, as you cough when you sneeze. Coughing with someone who has the disease can create a sore throat, coughing cough, or worse. The cough can also spread to people at other parties. Coughing is usually worse. Although usually transmitted by coughing from an infected individual, it can also spread when someone coughs with someone who has the disease. This is why it’s important to stop coughing in person if you aren’t sick! The symptoms of whooping cough include: Shortness of breath - a cough or wheezing can make the air fill with mucus. The person also may be unable to wheeze, making it harder for their chest to expand. Long pants - they are likely to have long pants that expose a lot of skin, which may be infected. The cough usually lasts within a few minutes once infected, and can happen any time from 7 days later to 5 weeks prior to the person being affected.

Coughing causes some infections to go away with the help of antibiotics. If you are sneezing, coughing, or coughing while someone is infected, you may be infected and have an active infection. Often, people become infected after a person with the disease gets sick (bacteria and/or viruses get into your system), so this will be noticed quickly.

The majority of the time your coughs do not cause severe flu-like symptoms. Even if you cough frequently, it only lasts for a period of time. Although shortness of breath can irritate your eyes, throat and lungs if you are coughing, most people get a good night sleep before the cough starts. Symptoms start to appear after 7 days and last for a week. The cough usually goes away after 5.

There are several ways to reduce exposure to whooping cough. It usually spreads through water or towels, so stop wearing those if you have a cough, sneeze, or cough during the day. Additionally, make sure you stay inside if you are sneezing. To reduce the risk of spread, don’t talk, watch TV or any kind of conversation that will keep you near a coughing person in the house, since that is more likely to spread it. Keep your children home from school to make sure the cough does not make you sick to your child. And of course do not share anything in a school locker room. There will most likely be other sneezers in there, and it won’t be long before you are infected. A good rule of thumb is, if you do not have any cough, sneeze or cough while someone is breathing the cough and if they cough for a longer period of time than you, they are most likely infected.

The first was the death of a 28 year old woman from Dunfermline in Lothian during this weekend. She was suffering from a chronic condition with her heart’s failure causing severe breathing problems that forced multiple hospitalisations. The first patient is a 47 year old man who had spent time in hospital during the summer. He was on a waiting list for a heart transplant and had lost all sensation in his left arm from a car accident about a year before his latest illness began. He developed a septic shock on arrival at the hospital and was rushed to an intubation facility where he lived for at least two days. After that he started to deteriorate severely. He is thought to have had a bacterial infection from the hospital. The second case is a 67 year old man from Edinburgh who was admitted to hospital and treated for a bout of the flu. On his admission to the hospital he developed an infection in his heart (infection of the myocardium) . Initial tests showed he had high bilirubin levels and he died as a result. According to NHS Lothian his heart had become infected as his immune system was not producing any proper antibodies.

It seems that infection is a major risk of this condition and the treatment should include antibiotics but if they cannot be given the patient may at least be kept alive by a ventilatory mask and oxygen is provided by a ventilator at the time of admission. The treatments will depend on the type of infection, condition and the patient’s age.

The second case has occurred during a weekend earlier this month which brought the total number of suspected infectious events to 19. The infected patient was hospitalized with high fever and had the same infection. He was kept for 23 days and in this period there were two new infections which may have been related.

What to do if you suspect You may be the new patient. If you suspect you may have the illness consider going to your GP or the hospital. They will advise you of some of the possible treatments. Be absolutely sure to inform your GP if there are any specific drug products you want to be warned of. If you do not feel your diagnosis is confirmed then treat with antibiotics first and be sure to wash thoroughly afterwards.

My best advice is not to treat or treat well or to go to your local hospital . You should avoid taking any antibiotic for at least two weeks, not start any new drugs, and use personal judgement until you have visited another GP or hospital and decided what to do next. There may be some serious complications from this course of treatment. You should not avoid taking any non-metallic or metallic medicine for at least a week and wash thoroughly after you take it. - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19362495 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed_docs/12891082-M%2C%2F001628-%2C15.pdf

Lithium (bromate of lithium sulphate) is an antibiotic used in many cases as the primary treatment. However they do not recommend its use as there are concerns about possible toxicity which is the reason why its generally not used in young children such as younger people who are very young or very ill or pregnant women. (prenatal use may be safe for some but not for others). It is a common medical problem that is known for years in many parts of the world.

Another important thing to know is that some kinds of lithium may be toxic and it is possible that its a new species of lithium that the hospital treating your infection got from a supplier.

There is a lot to be learned from observing what has happened historically. Let’s begin by exploring the evidence. To begin we will examine a set of data from New England and the Eastern states by calculating relative mortality rates from 1900 to 2005 by the total number of deaths from the plague. We will find a correlation over this timeframe with the total yearly emissions of greenhouse gases and the annual amount of precipitation or snow. We will then examine the effects of those changes.

The first thing I am concerned about is the fact that these data seem to contradict what is happening in areas that are currently experiencing flooding. In other words, the data seem to show that the plague is being made worse by man-made climate change, not worse by natural variability. This is important as flooding is a natural hazard that most of us are used to living with in New England. Therefore, I am not at all convinced that the plague is being made far worse by climate change and that it is being exacerbated by man-made warming. We find a correlation from 1904 to 2005 with the total annual emissions of greenhouse gases and the amount of snowfall. We should be concerned about all data taken at face value, but I don’t think we can escape a sense that I am not alone in finding these results unconvincing. I would be interested to see what the authors do with this data when they are able to remove all the factors that are responsible for that correlation.

At the point where I am concerned, I want to show you, in case there is anyone who does not follow me on twitter , how much worse the world looks with greenhouse gas levels at their current levels than it does without them. When we look at a dataset taking into account all of the climate science available, we see that the climate has become much more extreme than we would have imagined a few decades ago.

But there is more to this. The following plot has shown the global monthly mean temperature compared to the 1951-1980 mean for different values of the greenhouse gas budget. The green line represents what we expect to happen to the global surface temperature with a doubling of the total amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere or a 50% increase in the energy input required by man. The red line represents what we would expect to happen with carbon dioxide levels at their existing levels. This is a chart you can find here If you look closely, you can not help but notice the slight reduction in the red line is occurring in areas that are currently experiencing or will probably experience significantly more severe flooding because of the very rapid release of greenhouse gases. This may be bad for the residents of areas that are in the path of those very flooding events. These things would not be very interesting to know if there were no data available but climate change is a very compelling and disturbing problem. With it, you have a very important means of quantifying the magnitude of the problems we are facing with the natural variability of the weather and the effect of the change in global weather conditions on our collective society. I think the authors of this paper have some interesting ideas to explore how our current information about how our climate is changing relates to the increase in the amount of greenhouse gases that we are emitting. It shows that they do not find a strong correlation as expected when assuming that the extra energy from carbon dioxide is offset by the increase in precipitation. They would be well advised to figure out all of the many factors involved in this phenomenon, including the other major contributors of the recent global temperature spike. I would be interested to know if further study leads them to the conclusion that this recent temperature spike is caused primarily by the extra amount of greenhouse gases that are released. As I have already noted, I don’t think these data show that the plague is being made worse by global warming; far from it. I would be much more interested in finding the degree and nature of this temperature surge as opposed to the overall magnitude. In my mind, that is more of a conversation topic not a study topic. Please feel free to comment, share, and/or ask questions below. More from me at Climate Etc. http://climateetc.blogspot.com/ A note on attribution to climate change: There is a whole lot of discussion and research on how climate change is “anthropogenic.” With the increasing numbers of computer models, it is increasingly clear that the increase in average global temperatures is caused by increases in levels of the greenhouse gas greenhouse gases. If global warming is anthropogenic, then that would need to be controlled for in further analysis along with other major factors that are the key drivers of change. This is why I have stated, time and time again, that I do not accept the anthropogenic attribution of global warming. http://climateetc.blogspot.com/2013/03/anthropogenic- attribution-of-global-warming.html

It’s not just the loss of memory - dementia usually starts with symptoms of depression (a mental-health issue) or anxiety (physical/emotional). A lot of people never even know they have it.

And not all Alzheimer’s symptoms are from the brain. Some of them can be from the blood. That’s why there’s no one disease. The way you think, how you feel, and how you look can be affected by the way your blood is running at the moment of you fall, or the type of blood you have.

In some people, there’s an imbalance of red and white hemoglobin. That results in reduced production of red blood cells. This causes your disease to worsen.

Blood transfusions can help, as long as the person with the disease does the right thing. “If your blood is very full and has red blood cells, if you have a liver failure, anemia, you may want to donate your blood,” says Dr. Ellie. But for a lot of people, a simple blood transfusion can’t do the trick. The problem is, there isn’t much in the human body that isn’t made on a cellular level.

This was because one of the drugs administered was buprenorphine. Normally the effects of buprenorphine (which is also sold under the brand name Suboxone) do not last long in patients with a low-function low-activity dopamine transporter.

Since these patients would not likely have been admitted to hospital if they had been properly screened, and since more than 1,200,000 opioid pills have been sold nationally in recent years, the possibility of potentially hazardous opioids has been further magnified.

I found other research with similar results. The CDC studies, which focused on the use of opioids in patients with chronic pain, found that, on average, these patients had significant abnormalities in the central nervous system while using opioids. In one study, patients with intractable pain who received opioids were found either to have major structural changes in the brain or brain pathology in the case of people taking opioids for other non-malignant diseases, or the condition had already deteriorated. There were no abnormalities of the brain in these patients. In another study, the study participants had taken opioids after undergoing surgery to repair a tumour, and the researchers found that on average, it took approximately three months for the disease to recur. The authors concluded that “long-term opioid therapy can lead to major changes in the central nervous system and in the pathology of the central nervous system.” These drugs can also put people at increased risk for falls or other falls. The authors pointed out that patients taking opioids had several risk factors, which makes them more susceptible to falls: an impaired grip, muscle weakness, and the need for assistance to get up from a sitting position. There were also multiple drug use disorders and mental health disorders. The researchers found that these patients were more likely to die when they were hospitalized. The risk was especially high for young women and people who were smoking:

Finally, the CDC had significant trouble estimating the risk associated with taking these drugs.

The CDC states that buprenorphine is “ a semi-synthetic opioid analgesic ,” which is very high-risk. In another study, an analysis of buprenorphine-related deaths found that there were significant differences among age, gender, race, and socioeconomic status, with the highest rate for young women in their 20’s. In light of current drug policies that aim to reduce opioid use and overdose, as well as the fact that it is in use, it’s remarkable that the CDC continues to use this report as an excuse for not reducing the use or abuse of opioids in people who are not in pain. It’s been well documented that the use of opioids has gone beyond an epidemic , and that this has a dire effect on those at greatest risk of overdose, people who are already at increased risk for major cognitive deficits. We need to take steps to protect people who are actually in pain from the negative effects of drugs and to support those who are not at such risk. While it’s true that buprenorphine is highly regarded as a “ safe “ drug, if I were in charge of the CDC, I would ask patients to do more than go to sleep. They do not know the risk of addiction, lack of education, and poor social support. They do not know what they can do to prevent their children from getting addicted to opioids or to help their friends stop. If buprenorphine is not available in the clinical setting, my advice would be to offer patients information and education at the patient’s facility, or at the family member’s. I hope the drug agency does what it can with such limited data. But the data are not sufficient, and the problem is not going to go away. In a country where drug use is so common that many people have a hard time imagining a time in which opioids don’t continue to be prescribed, I think it’s important that people get the message about the risks and the potential for complications from certain medications.

It is suspected that this may have been the source for a previous case of illness that took place in 2010 where a premature baby died while still inside the NICU.

Source: http://adn.com/article/new-study-finds-infants-are-harming-our...

The study shows that infantile diarrhea (IVD) may be contagious if the newborn is close to a person who is sick or has gone recently sick. In 2010, there were four of these type of diarrhea episodes and one of them was to the mother.

The three premature deaths occurred in 2011, 2012 and 2013 among infants (including 12-day-old boys) who were being discharged from NICUs at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.

The study is the first to demonstrate that the presence of a new type of enteric pathogen in infants within 100 minutes of birth could result in an epidemic.

The study, led by researchers at the Adoption and Foster Care Clinic at University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, shows that the risk of the virus to develop into epidemic proportions is dramatically increased during the first 100 minutes of life. If confirmed, this would likely mean that parents who give birth to premature infants and deliver them in a NICU have the greatest risk.

This study, says UPMC Medical Center Associate Professor Charles Iannardi, Ph.D., one of the authors of the Pediatrics paper, offers further evidence to support the use of active surveillance at early life points to an urgent need for surveillance of infant mortality to identify cases of rare infantile diarrhea in the neonatal care setting.

“This study shows that these potentially risky risks are not rare in the NICU setting with premature infants and that parents who want to reduce infant mortality in the hospital may wish to keep an eye on their children for the first 100 minutes. Because of our success in detecting cases of infants getting sick, we need to apply this principle to cases of infectious diarrhea that result in prolonged illness in premature infants,” Iannardi says.

“If a pediatrician is not concerned about the safety of the NICU care that their infant receives when in their care, a new practice in the pediatric care setting that we are promoting from the NICU pediatric departments could prove beneficial. One benefit is that it can be recognized in the early case notes that can be used to diagnose any other pathogens. It is also critical because the risk of exposure is so high that many parents will be reluctant to provide a medical history in the presence of their child in the NICU. This study shows that early evidence can protect patients,” says study author Dr. Kari L. Foltz, M.D., associate professor of pediatrics at UPMC and the director of the Neonatal Death Prevention Program at the University of Pittsburgh.

As of May 2011, the number of U.S. premature infant deaths exceeded the deaths of both U.S. infants and U.S. babies born to women in their first trimesters. Approximately 11,300 babies died in 2009, the most recent year with comprehensive information on neonatal deaths and infant mortality. The infant mortality rate also continues to rise at a rate faster than average, with deaths occurring more than every two days. The infant mortality rate is the primary marker of how many infants die in U.S. hospitals.

As a child grows, it teaches them that food and water both contain nourishment and that each has different nutrition. The “food” also has a unique quality that stimulates the appetite to feedthem. As children grow and their bodies change, so must their feeding habits. From a general rule, a good rule of thumb is that the more breastfeeding a child has, the more likely she/he is to be active. This is due to how hormones work in the body. For most women, when they start breastfeeding, their milk supply is increased, as it is an excellent source of many nutrients, including the estrogen-like hormone - estradiol. However, it is important to note that the hormone estrogen is present in some forms (called estradiol receptors) and not all levels. The best way to monitor estradiol levels is to follow your breasts. For most women, this is best done using a special breast monitor or some other device that requires a gentle touch, such as a baby bottle or a pacifier. With regular breast milk, estrogen levels are often raised, which is a warning sign of a problematic feeding. Because estrogen is used by the body to stimulate the milk production, elevated levels will cause more than an upset bladder. The baby may also become irritable and upset. This is a sign of milk overload. Many women do not notice any issues until their children start breastfeeding. But for children with “normal” levels of estradiol, excess of milk (or not enough, if it cannot go to the right place) may cause some very serious symptoms. As a mother trying to breastfeed, it can be difficult to know whether one is in over supply or not. Many women just give in and let the baby eat and feed him. But because of this kind of situation, it is vital to properly check your level once in awhile. As you breastfeed your child, the levels of estradiol and the amounts of breast milk that your baby will need for the first 24 hr will change. How often this process takes place usually depends on the type of milk. In formula feeding situations, very low levels are present. As there is a huge difference between breast milk and formula milk with respect to estrogen levels, the use of a breast monitor may allow you to read your body’s hormone levels at a glance so that you can decide whether more or less milk is needed. The end result is that she/he will become aware of when he/she needs more milk (either formula or breast milk), and be able to adjust her/his feeding accordingly.

Posted by Ms_D at 1:21 PM

Anita said…

Oy. Another reader, from Boston, said something extremely encouraging. I’ve taken on a few things myself. I’m not sure why others don’t do it. I do it without a lot of prompting from family or co-workers. A big reason is that I’m an “all-in” consumer. I take everything into consideration. When we sell any kind of food, we do our homework. We have to get our suppliers to sign up for it. When I’m looking at a recipe, I look at the ingredient list on the container. It’s a different story when I’m thinking about purchasing that item at my local corner store. I have no idea what I’m getting. I don’t know if it’s healthy to eat just one meal a day. Is it time to give up the entire idea? I’m aware that it isn’t true for everybody. Some people just don’t need the calories, or they just don’t like them. But I realize that a lot of people don’t take their health concerns into account. Some people go crazy when they hear that they need to lose weight. How do you put a price tag on that? I realize that we are always getting things that we would never get on our own. Who knows? Some people just get fed up the second they see it in the supermarket. Some people just go so crazy over it that they are convinced they should eat everything. But I just don’t buy into that. I don’t want to let anyone down. I am able just to handle what I get. I buy everything that is in the can and can eat it once. We try and try to do everything ourselves. I take the extra time, and know more about what I am adding than any other person. I know exactly how much fat and sugar and what kind of flour I’ll need in my recipe, what ingredients I use. I know how much sodium I get. I get exact measurements. I even know what chemicals that come in my food. I have to put our product label on it for sure, and we tell everybody what we are getting that we can’t just take it directly from the grocery store. We have to

_ The Canton City Public Health Department is warning citizens about counterfeit/pressed pills appearing in community locations including schools, shopping malls, festivals, bars, etc., caused by their appearance with the exact number printed on them. Many consumers mistakenly believe these pills are the equivalent of a valid prescription medication.

“Consumers who come into the department requesting medical attention about counterfeit, counterfeit-resistant prescription pills face an increased likelihood of receiving medical attention, including visits to emergency rooms, poison control centers and the hospital,” said Director of Public Health Mary Brawley.

The Canton City Public Health Department will not be releasing the exact number of pills that have been distributed or the number of pills that have been discovered. The goal of this warning is to assist consumers who are affected and to educate those who may be curious into purchasing prescription items from reputable pharmacies and doctors’ offices.

Consumers should contact the Canton City Public Health Department’s Public Drug Info line if they think they may have purchased counterfeit prescriptions from a doctor or pharmacist.

They report their findings today (30 August) in ACS Nano . They hope to one day use the nanoparticles to address antibiotic susceptibility that persists for decades after an initial infection.

Nanoparticles like the ones found in their solution and the one made in the journal ACS Nano , which had been dormant following publication but are now active in their solution, bind to bacteria’s surface proteins, such as lacto-glutathione , which are produced by the outer membrane of all bacteria. They then release an enzyme that cleaves the proteins that act as ‘guidants’ and enables bacteria to escape their protective coating.

They say their approach may be especially useful for drug delivery, if it works as well as the drugs themselves, for instance during post surgical procedures. The drug they were testing was one that could target microfossils, a type of hardy or invasive microorganism. The particles are composed of nanoparticles that contain silica that is a natural building block of living cells. The nanoparticles, however, are only about 100 nanometres around, which is less than that of a human hair.

During the test, the coated nanoparticles were injected into a bacterial suspension, resulting in a transfer of a nanotube-like membrane into the bacterial suspension, and a bacterial growth reaction was triggered. A microfluidic device connected the nanoparticles to a sample of the bacterial suspension, enabling it to be continuously sampled via a flow cytometer and to measure and analyse the bacterial growth response. The drug-laden solution was analysed the next day and revealed that although the amount of the drug in each nanoparticle was identical, the drug in the nanomaterials was much greater than any in the active drug that was delivered. This indicates that nanomaterials such as these may be able to penetrate the cells and bind, rather than disrupt them, and deliver the necessary amount of active drug in different parts of the tissue at different times. The team say that while their approach has yet to be tested to see if this type of delivery is successful in bacteria, their findings suggest it is potentially feasible in other bacteria.

The microfluidic device used in the study works as a combination of an immuno-potentiator and anti-antibiotic. To deliver the active drug, one can build up the concentration of the drug using an artificial polymerisation agent. The polymerisation agent is an appropriate drug delivery drug if the concentration of drug required is sufficiently low to be safe. The approach might also be used for other microorganisms with a similar morphology: for instance, some bacterial strains are resistant to antibiotics and can be very difficult to eradicate if they escape destruction.

-The researchers hope to one day use the nanoparticles to meet the requirements for a viable vaccine or therapeutic solution, by using chemical modification.

Other authors on the study are: Yihui Liu of the Salk Institute and the Nanometre Nanosystems Group and Stephen Cai of the Salk Institute.

Citation : The paper is available from this link . It is written in a blog-like format, providing a lot of background as well as a lot of information on the paper. The paper summarises all the important points.

“ The city is also plagued by skyrocketing homelessness [and] a rise in drug addiction. Hamburg’s health needs of many are not met by state and federal funds and it must be improved at municipal, social, and community levels.” The New York Times The City of Hamburg is not alone; this is a national problem. Massive federal programs that deliver healthcare to all people, including children, minorities, immigrants, women, and disabled people have not eradicated health disparities across the country. In fact, in 2013, states passed more than 4,500 Affordable Care Act (ACA) health insurance exchange projects, according to a government report.

Cars are just one aspect of the problem. High crime rates (particularly in Hamburg ) and limited access to health care have led to an ever-growing number of homeless people in Hamburg. Many migrants seeking asylum in the German federal state of Bavaria had to go and seek asylum in another state within the Federal Republic of Germany; so far, the Bavarian government has not provided enough assistance to them. According to a 2012 study, over half of migrants living in Germany under the age of 18 have never sought medical care, compared to less than one quarter of native-born citizens.

In April 2015, it was revealed that Hamburg has a “rape crisis”, with a “rapist crisis” and a “sexual predator crisis.” In 2014, there were over 1,000 sexual crimes reported to police and prosecutors by migrants, primarily of foreigners. This has led to further concern. Some cities have implemented policies and procedures to deal with incidents, and yet, more than half of migrant sex crimes against the vulnerable are never reported to police. “ The report stated that only three percent of criminal complaints were taken into account and that many crimes are not even reported to police [The Department of] Migration has not defined when complaints to the police department can be taken into account. There is a risk involved in reporting a criminal incident … [involving] migrant sex crimes and sexual crimes against minors. The victim can be held liable to damages for failure to report when there is a risk of harm to the criminal victim. According to the report, more than 75 percent of sexual offenses against minors are not registered. The report also noted that the number of sexual offenses, primarily against women, increased to 2,360 cases in 2013, from 1,932 cases in 2011. The Sexualization of Boys and Girls “

According to the Germany-Bundesagentur, the German central government agency responsible for immigration, the crime problem in Germany reaches a level higher than in any other major country in the European Union and is worse than in its neighboring countries. Among foreign nationals, there are more sex crimes, robberies, burglaries, and auto theft than foreign crime rates in Poland and France. Of the foreign national rape cases in which the victim is German, some 35% are found to have violated German laws during the sexual act.

According to the European Union’s data, “Over a third of sexual assaults and sexual violence cases in Austria, Britain and Germany have no suspects in custody.”

The German Federal Republic of Germany is said to have the highest number of foreign people in prison. One-third of the inmates in all German prisons have German origins, compared to a national average of four percent. The majority of the foreign prisoners are from North Africa, but most of them came to Germany on tourist visas. In addition, the prison population of Germany has increased by over 2,700 in 2013 alone. One out of every five foreign adult prisoners in Germany is Muslim.

The German criminal justice system has been criticized for failing to deal with asylum seekers, a problem particularly in the Western Balkans. This is despite Germany’s legal obligation to asylum seekers. It has also been criticized for failing to deal with non-European citizens with a significant number of family ties. These include an estimated 50,000 Turkish citizens. German Chancellor Angela Merkel has announced her intention to continue granting Germany’s asylum-seekers the right to social welfare (under a scheme called “Sickatschutz”), so long as they don’t commit crimes. The country also continues to grant asylum to Syrians, though the number of refugees who are accepted each year in Germany, now about a third, has gone down to less than a fifth in recent years.

The refugee crisis has affected the economy, particularly economic migrants. As a result, the Hamburg tourism industry has suffered.In 2014, the German press claimed that the number of visitors to the German capital fell by 40 percent compared to 2013, suggesting a reduction in visitors during 2014 and early 2015, a claim which was quickly denied by the city government. According to the German magazine “Tiroler Rundschau,” in 2014 the number of visitors had dropped by around 25 percent and, if the claims are true, this number should rise to around 26 percent by 2015.

The New York Times reported that Hamburg’s tourism activity has been on

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